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Genes 2016, 7(8), 52; doi:10.3390/genes7080052

Remodeling and Control of Homologous Recombination by DNA Helicases and Translocases that Target Recombinases and Synapsis

1
School of Chemistry, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD, UK
2
Department of Molecular Biology, University of Zagreb, Zagreb 10000, Croatia
3
School of Life Sciences, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Richard T. Pomerantz
Received: 15 June 2016 / Revised: 24 July 2016 / Accepted: 12 August 2016 / Published: 19 August 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Replication and Transcription Associated DNA Repair)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1364 KB, uploaded 19 August 2016]   |  

Abstract

Recombinase enzymes catalyse invasion of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) into homologous duplex DNA forming “Displacement loops” (D-loops), a process called synapsis. This triggers homologous recombination (HR), which can follow several possible paths to underpin DNA repair and restart of blocked and collapsed DNA replication forks. Therefore, synapsis can be a checkpoint for controlling whether or not, how far, and by which pathway, HR proceeds to overcome an obstacle or break in a replication fork. Synapsis can be antagonized by limiting access of a recombinase to ssDNA and by dissociation of D-loops or heteroduplex formed by synapsis. Antagonists include DNA helicases and translocases that are identifiable in eukaryotes, bacteria and archaea, and which target synaptic and pre-synaptic DNA structures thereby controlling HR at early stages. Here we survey these events with emphasis on enabling DNA replication to be resumed from sites of blockage or collapse. We also note how knowledge of anti-recombination activities could be useful to improve efficiency of CRISPR-based genome editing. View Full-Text
Keywords: homologous recombination; synapsis; helicase; Hel308 homologous recombination; synapsis; helicase; Hel308
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Northall, S.J.; Ivančić-Baće, I.; Soultanas, P.; Bolt, E.L. Remodeling and Control of Homologous Recombination by DNA Helicases and Translocases that Target Recombinases and Synapsis. Genes 2016, 7, 52.

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