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Genes 2016, 7(11), 97; doi:10.3390/genes7110097

Identification of Novel Equine (Equus caballus) Tendon Markers Using RNA Sequencing

1
Center for Applied Biotechnology and Molecular Medicine, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057 Zurich, Switzerland
2
Equine Hospital, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zurich, CH-8057 Zurich, Switzerland
3
Scientific IT Services, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, CH 8092 Zurich, Switzerland
4
Institute of Laboratory Animal Science, University of Zurich, CH-8057 Zurich, Switzerland
5
Division of Trauma Surgery, Center for Clinical Research, University Hospital Zurich, University of Zurich, Sternwartstrasse 14, CH-8091 Zurich, Switzerland
These authors contributed equally to this work as first authors.
These authors contributed equally to this work as senior authors.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: J. Peter W. Young
Received: 30 March 2016 / Revised: 4 October 2016 / Accepted: 20 October 2016 / Published: 10 November 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Genetics)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [5900 KB, uploaded 10 November 2016]   |  

Abstract

Although several tendon-selective genes exist, they are also expressed in other musculoskeletal tissues. As cell and tissue engineering is reliant on specific molecular markers to discriminate between cell types, tendon-specific genes need to be identified. In order to accomplish this, we have used RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) to compare gene expression between tendon, bone, cartilage and ligament from horses. We identified several tendon-selective gene markers, and established eyes absent homolog 2 (EYA2) and a G-protein regulated inducer of neurite outgrowth 3 (GPRIN3) as specific tendon markers using RT-qPCR. Equine tendon cells cultured as three-dimensional spheroids expressed significantly greater levels of EYA2 than GPRIN3, and stained positively for EYA2 using immunohistochemistry. EYA2 was also found in fibroblast-like cells within the tendon tissue matrix and in cells localized to the vascular endothelium. In summary, we have identified EYA2 and GPRIN3 as specific molecular markers of equine tendon as compared to bone, cartilage and ligament, and provide evidence for the use of EYA2 as an additional marker for tendon cells in vitro. View Full-Text
Keywords: horse; tendon; transcriptome; eyes absent homolog 2; G-protein regulated inducer of neurite outgrowth 3 horse; tendon; transcriptome; eyes absent homolog 2; G-protein regulated inducer of neurite outgrowth 3
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Kuemmerle, J.M.; Theiss, F.; Okoniewski, M.J.; Weber, F.A.; Hemmi, S.; Mirsaidi, A.; Richards, P.J.; Cinelli, P. Identification of Novel Equine (Equus caballus) Tendon Markers Using RNA Sequencing. Genes 2016, 7, 97.

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