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Genes 2015, 6(3), 641-661; doi:10.3390/genes6030641

Chromatin Dynamics in Lineage Commitment and Cellular Reprogramming

Department of Cell and Systems Biology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3G5, Canada
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Academic Editor: Jessica Tyler
Received: 26 May 2015 / Revised: 8 July 2015 / Accepted: 10 July 2015 / Published: 17 July 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chromatin Dynamics)
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Abstract

Dynamic structural properties of chromatin play an essential role in defining cell identity and function. Transcription factors and chromatin modifiers establish and maintain cell states through alteration of DNA accessibility and histone modifications. This activity is focused at both gene-proximal promoter regions and distally located regulatory elements. In the three-dimensional space of the nucleus, distal elements are localized in close physical proximity to the gene-proximal regulatory sequences through the formation of chromatin loops. These looping features in the genome are highly dynamic as embryonic stem cells differentiate and commit to specific lineages, and throughout reprogramming as differentiated cells reacquire pluripotency. Identifying these functional distal regulatory regions in the genome provides insight into the regulatory processes governing early mammalian development and guidance for improving the protocols that generate induced pluripotent cells. View Full-Text
Keywords: embryonic stem cell; induced pluripotent stem cell; reprogramming; chromatin; epigenetics; chromatin looping; transcription factor; gene expression; differentiation embryonic stem cell; induced pluripotent stem cell; reprogramming; chromatin; epigenetics; chromatin looping; transcription factor; gene expression; differentiation
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Shchuka, V.M.; Malek-Gilani, N.; Singh, G.; Langroudi, L.; Dhaliwal, N.K.; Moorthy, S.D.; Davidson, S.; Macpherson, N.N.; Mitchell, J.A. Chromatin Dynamics in Lineage Commitment and Cellular Reprogramming. Genes 2015, 6, 641-661.

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