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Genes 2015, 6(3), 520-542; doi:10.3390/genes6030520

One, Two, Three: Polycomb Proteins Hit All Dimensions of Gene Regulation

1
INRA, UMR1318-AgroParisTech, Institut Jean-Pierre Bourgin (IJPB), INRA-Centre de Versailles-Grignon, Route de St-Cyr, Versailles Cedex F-78026, France
2
Institute for Genetics, HHU Duesseldorf, Universitätsstraße 1, Duesseldorf D-40225, Germany
Current address: Institute for Biology, Freie Universität Berlin, Königin-Luise-Strasse 12-16, Berlin D-14195, Germany
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jessica Tyler
Received: 11 May 2015 / Accepted: 30 June 2015 / Published: 10 July 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chromatin Dynamics)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [374 KB, uploaded 10 July 2015]   |  

Abstract

Polycomb group (PcG) proteins contribute to the formation and maintenance of a specific repressive chromatin state that prevents the expression of genes in a particular space and time. Polycomb repressive complexes (PRCs) consist of several PcG proteins with specific regulatory or catalytic properties. PRCs are recruited to thousands of target genes, and various recruitment factors, including DNA-binding proteins and non-coding RNAs, are involved in the targeting. PcG proteins contribute to a multitude of biological processes by altering chromatin features at different scales. PcG proteins mediate both biochemical modifications of histone tails and biophysical modifications (e.g., chromatin fiber compaction and three-dimensional (3D) chromatin conformation). Here, we review the role of PcG proteins in nuclear architecture, describing their impact on the structure of the chromatin fiber, on chromatin interactions, and on the spatial organization of the genome in nuclei. Although little is known about the role of plant PcG proteins in nuclear organization, much is known in the animal field, and we highlight similarities and differences in the roles of PcG proteins in 3D gene regulation in plants and animals. View Full-Text
Keywords: Polycomb; chromatin; Arabidopsis thaliana; three-dimensional nuclear architecture; Polycomb bodies; topologically associating domain (TAD); chromatin loops; lamins Polycomb; chromatin; Arabidopsis thaliana; three-dimensional nuclear architecture; Polycomb bodies; topologically associating domain (TAD); chromatin loops; lamins
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

del Prete, S.; Mikulski, P.; Schubert, D.; Gaudin, V. One, Two, Three: Polycomb Proteins Hit All Dimensions of Gene Regulation. Genes 2015, 6, 520-542.

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