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Genes 2015, 6(2), 399-416; doi:10.3390/genes6020399

MicroRNA-224 is Readily Detectable in Urine of Individuals with Diabetes Mellitus and is a Potential Indicator of Beta-Cell Demise

1
Department of Endocrinology, Mater Misericordiae University Hospital, Eccles Street, Dublin 7, Ireland
2
Departments of Physiology and Medical Physics, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, 123 St Stephen's Green, Dublin 2, Ireland
3
Centre for Systems Medicine, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, 123 St Stephen's Green, Dublin 2, Ireland
Shared first authorship.
Shared senior authorship.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Claire Vandiedonck
Received: 26 March 2015 / Revised: 11 June 2015 / Accepted: 18 June 2015 / Published: 23 June 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genetics of Diabetes)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [221 KB, uploaded 23 June 2015]   |  

Abstract

MicroRNA (miRNA) are a class of non-coding, 19–25 nucleotide RNA critical for network-level regulation of gene expression. miRNA serve as paracrine signaling molecules. Using an unbiased array approach, we previously identified elevated levels of miR-224 and miR-103 to be associated with a monogenic form of diabetes; HNF1A-MODY. miR-224 is a novel miRNA in the field of diabetes. We sought to explore the role of miR-224 as a potential biomarker in diabetes, and whether such diabetes-associated-miRNA can also be detected in the urine of patients. Absolute levels of miR-224 and miR-103 were determined in the urine of n = 144 individuals including carriers of a HNF1A mutation, participants with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and normal controls. Expression levels were correlated with clinical and biochemical parameters. miR-224 was significantly elevated in the urine of carriers of a HNF1A mutation and participants with T1DM. miR-103 was highly expressed in urine across all diabetes cohorts when compared to controls. For both miR-224 and-103, we found a significant correlation between serum and urine levels (p < 0.01). We demonstrate that miRNA can be readily detected in the urine independent of clinical indices of renal dysfunction. We surmise that the differential expression levels of miR-224 in both HNF1A-MODY mutation carriers and T1DM may be an attempt to compensate for beta-cell demise. View Full-Text
Keywords: diabetes associated microRNA; miR-103; miR-224; urinary biomarker; insulin secretion diabetes associated microRNA; miR-103; miR-224; urinary biomarker; insulin secretion
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Bacon, S.; Engelbrecht, B.; Schmid, J.; Pfeiffer, S.; Gallagher, R.; McCarthy, A.; Burke, M.; Concannon, C.; Prehn, J.H.M.; Byrne, M.M. MicroRNA-224 is Readily Detectable in Urine of Individuals with Diabetes Mellitus and is a Potential Indicator of Beta-Cell Demise. Genes 2015, 6, 399-416.

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