Next Article in Journal
Next Article in Special Issue
Previous Article in Journal
Previous Article in Special Issue
Genes 2011, 2(2), 360-373; doi:10.3390/genes2020360
Review

A Reverse Transcriptase-Dependent Mechanism Is Essential for Murine Preimplantation Development

,
,
 and *
Received: 6 April 2011; in revised form: 6 May 2011 / Accepted: 10 May 2011 / Published: 18 May 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Early Mouse Embryo as a Model Organism for Reprogramming)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [233 KB, uploaded 18 May 2011]   |   Browse Figures
Abstract: LINE-1 (Long Interspersed Nuclear elements) and HERVs (Human Endogenous Retroviruses) are two families of retrotransposons which together account for about 28% of the human genome. Genes harbored within LINE-1 and HERV retrotransposons, particularly that encoding the reverse transcriptase (RT) enzyme, are generally expressed at low levels in differentiated cells, but their expression is up-regulated in embryonic tissues and transformed cells. Here we review evidence indicating that the LINE-1-encoded RT plays regulatory roles in early embryonic development. Indeed, antisense-mediated inhibition of expression of a highly expressed LINE-1 family in mouse zygotes caused developmental arrest at the two- or four-cell embryo stages. Development is also arrested when the embryo endogenous RT activity is pharmacologically inhibited by nevirapine, an RT inhibitor currently employed in AIDS treatment. The arrest of embryonic development is irreversible even after RT inhibition is removed and it is associated with subverted gene expression profiles. These data indicate an early requirement for LINE-1-encoded RT to support early developmental progression. Consistent with this, recent findings indicate that a reverse transcription wave is triggered in the zygote a few hours after fertilization and is propagated at least through the first two rounds of cell division. On the whole these findings suggest that reverse transcription is strictly required in early embryos as a key component of a novel RT-dependent mechanism that regulated the proper unfolding of the developmental program.
Keywords: preimplantation embryo development; retrotransposon; LINE-1; reverse transcriptase inhibitors; tumorigenesis preimplantation embryo development; retrotransposon; LINE-1; reverse transcriptase inhibitors; tumorigenesis
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Export to BibTeX |
EndNote


MDPI and ACS Style

Sciamanna, I.; Vitullo, P.; Curatolo, A.; Spadafora, C. A Reverse Transcriptase-Dependent Mechanism Is Essential for Murine Preimplantation Development. Genes 2011, 2, 360-373.

AMA Style

Sciamanna I, Vitullo P, Curatolo A, Spadafora C. A Reverse Transcriptase-Dependent Mechanism Is Essential for Murine Preimplantation Development. Genes. 2011; 2(2):360-373.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sciamanna, Ilaria; Vitullo, Patrizia; Curatolo, Angela; Spadafora, Corrado. 2011. "A Reverse Transcriptase-Dependent Mechanism Is Essential for Murine Preimplantation Development." Genes 2, no. 2: 360-373.



Genes EISSN 2073-4425 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert