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Cells 2012, 1(4), 799-831; doi:10.3390/cells1040799
Review

Multiple Strategies for Translesion Synthesis in Bacteria

1,†
,
1,†
,
2
 and
1,3,*
1 Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115, USA 2 Department of Biological Science, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306, USA 3 Center for Interdisciplinary Research on Complex Systems, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115, USA These authors contributed equally to this work.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 August 2012 / Revised: 29 September 2012 / Accepted: 30 September 2012 / Published: 15 October 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cellular Stress Response)
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Abstract

Damage to DNA is common and can arise from numerous environmental and endogenous sources. In response to ubiquitous DNA damage, Y-family DNA polymerases are induced by the SOS response and are capable of bypassing DNA lesions. In Escherichia coli, these Y-family polymerases are DinB and UmuC, whose activities are modulated by their interaction with the polymerase manager protein UmuD. Many, but not all, bacteria utilize DinB and UmuC homologs. Recently, a C-family polymerase named ImuC, which is similar in primary structure to the replicative DNA polymerase DnaE, was found to be able to copy damaged DNA and either carry out or suppress mutagenesis. ImuC is often found with proteins ImuA and ImuB, the latter of which is similar to Y‑family polymerases, but seems to lack the catalytic residues necessary for polymerase activity. This imuAimuBimuC mutagenesis cassette represents a widespread alternative strategy for translesion synthesis and mutagenesis in bacteria. Bacterial Y‑family and ImuC DNA polymerases contribute to replication past DNA damage and the acquisition of antibiotic resistance.
Keywords: DNA damage; mutagenesis; SOS response; DNA pol IV (DinB); DNA pol V (UmuD'2C); dnaE; dnaE2; imuA; imuB; imuC DNA damage; mutagenesis; SOS response; DNA pol IV (DinB); DNA pol V (UmuD' 2C); dnaE; dnaE2; imuA; imuB; imuC
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Ippoliti, P.J.; DeLateur, N.A.; Jones, K.M.; Beuning, P.J. Multiple Strategies for Translesion Synthesis in Bacteria. Cells 2012, 1, 799-831.

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