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p53 -Dependent and -Independent Nucleolar Stress Responses
Department of Oncology-Pathology, Karolinska Institutet, Cancer Center Karolinska R8:05, Karolinska University Hospital in Solna, SE-17176, Stockholm, Sweden
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 September 2012; in revised form: 28 September 2012 / Accepted: 1 October 2012 / Published: 15 October 2012
Abstract: The nucleolus has emerged as a cellular stress sensor and key regulator of p53-dependent and -independent stress responses. A variety of abnormal metabolic conditions, cytotoxic compounds, and physical insults induce alterations in nucleolar structure and function, a situation known as nucleolar or ribosomal stress. Ribosomal proteins, including RPL11 and RPL5, become increasingly bound to the p53 regulatory protein MDM2 following nucleolar stress. Ribosomal protein binding to MDM2 blocks its E3 ligase function leading to stabilization and activation of p53. In this review we focus on a number of novel regulators of the RPL5/RPL11-MDM2-p53 complex including PICT1 (GLTSCR2), MYBBP1A, PML and NEDD8. p53-independent pathways mediating the nucleolar stress response are also emerging and in particular the negative control that RPL11 exerts on Myc oncoprotein is of importance, given the role of Myc as a master regulator of ribosome biogenesis. We also briefly discuss the potential of chemotherapeutic drugs that specifically target RNA polymerase I to induce nucleolar stress.
Keywords: nucleolus; p53; ribosome biogenesis; cancer; RPL11
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Holmberg Olausson, K.; Nistér, M.; Lindström, M.S. p53 -Dependent and -Independent Nucleolar Stress Responses. Cells 2012, 1, 774-798.
Holmberg Olausson K, Nistér M, Lindström MS. p53 -Dependent and -Independent Nucleolar Stress Responses. Cells. 2012; 1(4):774-798.
Holmberg Olausson, Karl; Nistér, Monica; Lindström, Mikael S. 2012. "p53 -Dependent and -Independent Nucleolar Stress Responses." Cells 1, no. 4: 774-798.