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An Overview of Autophagy and Yeast Pseudohyphal Growth: Integration of Signaling Pathways during Nitrogen Stress
Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 May 2012; in revised form: 14 June 2012 / Accepted: 19 June 2012 / Published: 4 July 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Autophagy
Abstract: The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae responds to nutritional stress through the regulated activities of signaling pathways mediating autophagy and other conserved cellular processes. Autophagy has been studied intensely in yeast, where over 30 autophagy-related genes have been identified with defined roles enabling the formation of autophagic vesicles and their subsequent trafficking to the central yeast vacuole. Much less, however, is known regarding the regulatory mechanisms through which autophagy is integrated with other yeast stress responses. Nitrogen limitation initiates autophagy and pseudohyphal growth in yeast, the latter being a fascinating stress response characterized by the formation of multicellular chains or filaments of elongated cells. An increasing body of evidence suggests an interrelationship between processes responsive to nitrogen stress with cAMP-dependent PKA and the TOR kinase complex acting as key regulators of autophagy, pseudohyphal growth, and endocytosis. In this review, we will summarize our current understanding of the regulatory events controlling these processes. In particular, we explore the interplay between autophagy, polarized pseudohyphal growth, and to a lesser extent endocytosis, and posit that the integrated response of these processes in yeast is a critical point for further laboratory experimentation as a model of cellular responses to nitrogen limitation throughout the Eukaryota.
Keywords: yeast; filamentous growth; pseudohyphal growth; autophagy; PKA; Tor
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Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Song, Q.; Kumar, A. An Overview of Autophagy and Yeast Pseudohyphal Growth: Integration of Signaling Pathways during Nitrogen Stress. Cells 2012, 1, 263-283.
Song Q, Kumar A. An Overview of Autophagy and Yeast Pseudohyphal Growth: Integration of Signaling Pathways during Nitrogen Stress. Cells. 2012; 1(3):263-283.
Song, Qingxuan; Kumar, Anuj. 2012. "An Overview of Autophagy and Yeast Pseudohyphal Growth: Integration of Signaling Pathways during Nitrogen Stress." Cells 1, no. 3: 263-283.