Open AccessThis article is
- freely available
Modulation of Autophagy-Like Processes by Tumor Viruses
Division of Infectious Diseases, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 May 2012; in revised form: 13 June 2012 / Accepted: 14 June 2012 / Published: 25 June 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Autophagy
Abstract: Autophagy is an intracellular degradation pathway for long-lived proteins and organelles. This process is activated above basal levels upon cell intrinsic or environmental stress and dysregulation of autophagy has been linked to various human diseases, including those caused by viral infection. Many viruses have evolved strategies to directly interfere with autophagy, presumably to facilitate their replication or to escape immune detection. However, in some cases, modulation of autophagy appears to be a consequence of the virus disturbing the cell’s metabolic signaling networks. Here, we summarize recent advances in research at the interface of autophagy and viral infection, paying special attention to strategies that human tumor viruses have evolved.
Keywords: autophagy; cancer; Epstein–Barr virus; hepatitis B virus; hepatitis C virus; human papillomavirus; human T-lymphotropic virus 1; Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus; Merkel cell polyomavirus
Citations to this Article
Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Mack, H.I.D.; Munger, K. Modulation of Autophagy-Like Processes by Tumor Viruses. Cells 2012, 1, 204-247.
Mack HID, Munger K. Modulation of Autophagy-Like Processes by Tumor Viruses. Cells. 2012; 1(3):204-247.
Mack, Hildegard I. D.; Munger, Karl. 2012. "Modulation of Autophagy-Like Processes by Tumor Viruses." Cells 1, no. 3: 204-247.