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Polymers 2018, 10(6), 634; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym10060634

A Cellulose/Laponite Interpenetrated Polymer Network (IPN) Hydrogel: Controllable Double-Network Structure with High Modulus

1
Regenerative Medicine and Skeleton (RMeS), INSERM UMR_S1229, Université de Nantes, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Nantes, ONIRIS, F-44042 Nantes, France
2
CNRS UMR6283, Institut des Molécules et Matériaux du Mans (IMMM), Le Mans Université, F-72000 Le Mans, France
3
School of Dentistry, Université de Nantes, F-44042 Nantes, France
4
Nantes University Hospital, CHU Nantes, PHU4 OTONN, F-44042 Nantes, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 April 2018 / Revised: 29 May 2018 / Accepted: 5 June 2018 / Published: 8 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrophilic Polymers)
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Abstract

Laponite XLS™, which is a synthetic clay of nanometric dimensions containing a peptizing agent, has been associated with silanized hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (Si-HPMC) to form, after crosslinking, a novel composite hydrogel. Different protocols of sample preparation were used, leading to different morphologies. A key result was that the storage modulus of Si-HPMC/XLS composite hydrogel could be increased ten times when compared to that of pure Si-HPMC hydrogel using 2 wt % of Laponite. The viscoelastic properties of the composite formulations indicated that chemical and physical network structures co-existed in the Si-HPMC/XLS composite hydrogel. Images that were obtained from confocal laser scanning microscopy using labelled Laponite XLS in the composite hydrogels show two co-continuous areas: red light area and dark area. The tracking of fluorescent microspheres motions in the composite formulations revealed that the red-light area was a dense structure, whereas the dark area was rather loose without aggregated Laponite. This novel special double-network structure facilitates the composite hydrogel to be an adapted biomaterial for specific tissue engineering. Unfortunately, cytotoxicity’s assays suggested that XLS Laponites are cytotoxic at low concentration. This study validates that the hybrid interpenetrated network IPN hydrogel has a high modulus that has adapted for tissue engineering, but the cell’s internalization of Laponites has to be controlled. View Full-Text
Keywords: hydrogel; clay; biomaterial; tissue engineering; cytotoxicity; interpenetrating networks; composite hydrogels hydrogel; clay; biomaterial; tissue engineering; cytotoxicity; interpenetrating networks; composite hydrogels
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Xie, F.; Boyer, C.; Gaborit, V.; Rouillon, T.; Guicheux, J.; Tassin, J.-F.; Geoffroy, V.; Réthoré, G.; Weiss, P. A Cellulose/Laponite Interpenetrated Polymer Network (IPN) Hydrogel: Controllable Double-Network Structure with High Modulus. Polymers 2018, 10, 634.

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