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Polymers, Volume 10, Issue 6 (June 2018)

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Open AccessReview A Radio-Fluorogenic Polymer-Gel Makes Fixed Fluorescent Images of Complex Radiation Fields
Polymers 2018, 10(6), 685; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym10060685 (registering DOI)
Received: 30 May 2018 / Revised: 13 June 2018 / Accepted: 16 June 2018 / Published: 20 June 2018
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Abstract
We review the development and application of an organic polymer-gel capable of producing fixed, three-dimensional fluorescent images of complex radiation fields. The gel consists for more than 99% of γ-ray-polymerized (~15% conversion) tertiary-butyl acrylate (TBA) containing ~100 ppm of a fluorogenic compound, e.g.,
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We review the development and application of an organic polymer-gel capable of producing fixed, three-dimensional fluorescent images of complex radiation fields. The gel consists for more than 99% of γ-ray-polymerized (~15% conversion) tertiary-butyl acrylate (TBA) containing ~100 ppm of a fluorogenic compound, e.g., maleimido-pyrene (MPy). The radio-fluorogenic effect depends on copolymerization of the MPy into growing chains of TBA on radiation-induced polymerization. This converts the maleimido residue, which quenches the pyrene fluorescence, into a succinimido moeity (SPy), which does not. The intensity of the fluorescence is proportional to the yield of free-radicals formed and hence to the local dose deposited. Because the SPy moieties are built into the polymer network, the image is fixed. The method of preparing the gel and imaging the radiation-induced fluorescence are presented and discussed. The effect is illustrated with fluorescent images of the energy deposited in the gel by beams of X-rays, electrons, and protons as well as a radioactive isotope. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Characterization)
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Open AccessArticle Analysis of the Models of Motion of Aqueous Solutions of Polymers on the Basis of Their Exact Solutions
Polymers 2018, 10(6), 684; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym10060684 (registering DOI)
Received: 24 May 2018 / Revised: 15 June 2018 / Accepted: 15 June 2018 / Published: 19 June 2018
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Abstract
The qualitative properties of solutions of a hereditary model of motion of aqueous solutions of polymers, its modification in the limiting case of short relaxation times, and a similar second grade fluid model are studied. Unsteady shear flows are considered. In the first
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The qualitative properties of solutions of a hereditary model of motion of aqueous solutions of polymers, its modification in the limiting case of short relaxation times, and a similar second grade fluid model are studied. Unsteady shear flows are considered. In the first case, their properties are similar to those of motion of a usual viscous fluid. Other models can include weak discontinuities, which are retained in the course of fluid motion. Exact solutions are found by using the group analysis of the examined systems of equations. These solutions describe the fluid motion in a gap between coaxial rotating cylinders, the stagnation point flow, and the motion in a half-space induced by plane rotation (analog of the Karman vortex). The problem of motion of an aqueous solution of a polymer in a cylindrical tube under the action of a streamwise pressure gradient is considered. In this case, a flow with straight-line trajectories is possible (analog of the Hagen-Poiseuille flow). In contrast to the latter, however, the pressure in the flow considered here depends on all three spatial variables. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Dynamics)
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Open AccessArticle An Analytical Model of Interlaminar Fracture of Polymer Composite Reinforced by Carbon Fibres Grafted with Carbon Nanotubes
Polymers 2018, 10(6), 683; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym10060683 (registering DOI)
Received: 26 May 2018 / Revised: 13 June 2018 / Accepted: 15 June 2018 / Published: 19 June 2018
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Abstract
An analytical model was developed to study the interlaminar fracture behaviour of polymer composite reinforced by carbon fibres grafted with carbon nanotubes. Delamination properties, such as load with displacement or crack (R-curve) and toughness with crack (GR-curve), can
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An analytical model was developed to study the interlaminar fracture behaviour of polymer composite reinforced by carbon fibres grafted with carbon nanotubes. Delamination properties, such as load with displacement or crack (R-curve) and toughness with crack (GR-curve), can be obtained from this model. The bridging laws presented, based on the CNT pullout mechanism (CNT pullout from polymer matrix) and the CNT sword-in-sheath mechanism (CNT breakage), were incorporated into the proposed analytical model to investigate the influence of the structure of CNT growth onto CFs (CNT@CFs) on delamination properties. The numerical results showed that different toughening mechanisms led to different features of GR-curves, R-curves, and load with displacement curves. Parametric study demonstrated that strengthening the CNT@CF interface resulted in significant improvement in toughness. Further, it was found that elastic deformation of CNTs played an important role in the toughness improvement in the CNT sword-in-sheath mechanism, but no such role was evident in the CNT pullout mechanism. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Sol-Gel Synthesis, Spectroscopic and Thermal Behavior Study of SiO2/PEG Composites Containing Different Amount of Chlorogenic Acid
Polymers 2018, 10(6), 682; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym10060682 (registering DOI)
Received: 31 May 2018 / Revised: 15 June 2018 / Accepted: 16 June 2018 / Published: 19 June 2018
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Abstract
In this work, new phenol-based materials have been synthesized by the sol-gel method, in which different amounts of the phenolic antioxidant chlorogenic acid (CGA) (from 5 wt % to 20 wt %) were embedded in two different silica matrices: pure silica and silica-based
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In this work, new phenol-based materials have been synthesized by the sol-gel method, in which different amounts of the phenolic antioxidant chlorogenic acid (CGA) (from 5 wt % to 20 wt %) were embedded in two different silica matrices: pure silica and silica-based hybrids materials, containing 50 wt % of polyethylene glycol (PEG). The incorporation of CGA in different sol-gel matrices might protect them from degradation, which could cause the loss of their properties. The two series of materials were chemically characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. In addition, the thermal behavior of both series of materials containing CGA was studied by thermogravimetry under both air and inert N2 flowing gas atmosphere. The bioactivity was evaluated by soaking the synthesized hybrids in a simulated body fluid, showing that the bioactivity of the silica matrix is not modified by the presence of PEG and CGA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Siloxane-Based Polymers)
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Open AccessArticle Fabric Coated with Shape Memory Polyurethane and Its Properties
Polymers 2018, 10(6), 681; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym10060681 (registering DOI)
Received: 25 May 2018 / Revised: 13 June 2018 / Accepted: 14 June 2018 / Published: 19 June 2018
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Abstract
In order to provide thermo-physiological comfort to the wearer, textile materials should have some functional property like water-resistance or water vapor transmission (WVT), so that perspiration can evaporate and be transmitted from the body surface to the environment even in extreme weather conditions
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In order to provide thermo-physiological comfort to the wearer, textile materials should have some functional property like water-resistance or water vapor transmission (WVT), so that perspiration can evaporate and be transmitted from the body surface to the environment even in extreme weather conditions that require wind and rain proof. Shape memory polyurethane (SMPU) could possibly be a candidate; it is a functional textile material that meets such requirements. In this research, we synthesized a series of SMPUs, which are responsive materials, to test whether these coated cotton fabrics could provide thermal insulation with lower permeability at low temperature or low relative humidity (RH), and high permeability at room temperature or above, or high relative humidity with its water-resistance property. In this paper, we have proposed a segmented shape memory polyurethane for coated textiles in order to have a water-resistant textile with good water vapor transmitting ability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Textile and Textile-Based Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Centrifugally Spun Recycled PET: Processing and Characterization
Polymers 2018, 10(6), 680; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym10060680 (registering DOI)
Received: 28 May 2018 / Revised: 15 June 2018 / Accepted: 16 June 2018 / Published: 19 June 2018
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Abstract
Centrifugal spinning, which is a high-productivity fiber fabrication technique, was used to produce a value-added product from recycled poly(ethylene terephthalate) (rPET). In the present study, rPET fibers, with fiber diameters ranging from submicron to micrometer in scale, were fabricated by spinning a solution
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Centrifugal spinning, which is a high-productivity fiber fabrication technique, was used to produce a value-added product from recycled poly(ethylene terephthalate) (rPET). In the present study, rPET fibers, with fiber diameters ranging from submicron to micrometer in scale, were fabricated by spinning a solution of rPET in a mixture of dichloromethane and trifluoroacetic acid. The influence of the polymer solution concentration (the viscosity), the rotational speed of the spinneret, and the inner diameter of the needles on the formation and morphology and mechanical properties of the fibers were examined through scanning electron microscopy and using a tensile testing machine. The thermal behaviors of fibrous mats with various average diameters were also investigated through differential scanning calorimetry. The smoothest and smallest fibers, with an average diameter of 619 nm, were generated using an rPET solution of 10 wt % under a rotation speed of 15,000 rpm using needles having an inner diameter of 160 μm. The fibrous mats have an average tensile strength and modulus of 4.3 MPa and 34.4 MPa, respectively. The productivity and the mechanical properties indicate that centrifugal spinning is an effective technique to fabricate high-value product from rPET. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Molecularly Imprinted Polymers for the Selective Extraction of Bisphenol A and Progesterone from Aqueous Media
Polymers 2018, 10(6), 679; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym10060679 (registering DOI)
Received: 29 May 2018 / Revised: 13 June 2018 / Accepted: 15 June 2018 / Published: 19 June 2018
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Abstract
This paper describes the development of a novel sorbent for selective extraction of endocrine disruptors (EDs) from aqueous media. The main goal was to obtain sufficient molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) for selective detection, preconcentration, and extraction of EDs such as bisphenol A (BPA)
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This paper describes the development of a novel sorbent for selective extraction of endocrine disruptors (EDs) from aqueous media. The main goal was to obtain sufficient molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) for selective detection, preconcentration, and extraction of EDs such as bisphenol A (BPA) and progesterone (PG). Series of MIPs and their analogues, non-molecularly imprinted polymers (NIPs), were synthesised following a non-covalent imprinting strategy based on radical polymerisation. Sets of synthesis were performed in order to optimise variables of the polymerisation including solvent, cross-linker, and template ratio. The retention capacity of MIPs was determined using HPLC in the range of 33.3% to 96.6% and 32.5% to 96% for BPA and PG, respectively. The adsorption mechanism was studied by isothermal and kinetic assays. The kinetic analysis showed a high retention capacity within 15 min of contact. The polymer yield was obtained in the range of 30% to 100%. Additionally, there was no significant cross-reactivity observed upon testing MIPs with structural analogues and other endocrine disruptors instead of target molecules. The results also revealed the high importance of different concentrations of cross-linker and solvent during the polymerisation. Firstly, the pre-organisation of complementary functional groups, which were present in the polymerisation mixture, and secondly, selective cavity formation for target molecules. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecularly Imprinted Polymers)
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Open AccessArticle Finite-Element Investigation of the Structural Behavior of Basalt Fiber Reinforced Polymer (BFRP)- Reinforced Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC) Decks Slabs in Thompson Bridge
Polymers 2018, 10(6), 678; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym10060678
Received: 21 May 2018 / Revised: 13 June 2018 / Accepted: 14 June 2018 / Published: 18 June 2018
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Abstract
The need for a sustainable development and improved whole life performance of concrete infrastructure has led to the requirement of more durable and sustainable concrete bridges alongside accurate predictive analysis tools. Using the combination of Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC) with industrial by-products and fiber-reinforced
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The need for a sustainable development and improved whole life performance of concrete infrastructure has led to the requirement of more durable and sustainable concrete bridges alongside accurate predictive analysis tools. Using the combination of Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC) with industrial by-products and fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP), reinforcement is anticipated to address the concerns of high carbon footprint and corrosion in traditional steel-reinforced concrete structures. This paper presents a numerical investigation of the structural behavior of basalt fiber-reinforced polymer (BFRP)-reinforced SCC deck slabs in a real bridge, named Thompson Bridge, constructed in Northern Ireland, U.K. A non-linear finite element (FE) model is proposed by using ABAQUS 6.10 in this study, which is aimed at extending the previous investigation of the field test in Thompson Bridge. The results of this field test were used to validate the accuracy of the proposed finite element model. The results showed good agreement between the test results and the numerical results; more importantly, the compressive membrane action (CMA) inside the slabs could be well demonstrated by this FE model. Subsequently, a series of parametric studies was conducted to investigate the influence of different parameters on the structural performance of the deck slabs in Thompson Bridge. The results of the analyses are discussed, and conclusions on the behavior of the SCC deck slabs reinforced by BFRP bars are presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Simulations of Polymers)
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Open AccessArticle Preparation of Compositional Gradient Polymeric Films Based on Gradient Mesh Template
Polymers 2018, 10(6), 677; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym10060677
Received: 19 May 2018 / Revised: 12 June 2018 / Accepted: 15 June 2018 / Published: 18 June 2018
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Abstract
In this paper, a template-filling method was found to prepare composition gradient gelatin films by incorporating α-[3-(2,3-epoxypropoxy) propyl]-ω-butyl-polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS–E) grafted gelatin (PGG) into a gradient gelatin mesh template. The method can be used to prepare other composition gradient biopolymer films. Gradient mesh template
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In this paper, a template-filling method was found to prepare composition gradient gelatin films by incorporating α-[3-(2,3-epoxypropoxy) propyl]-ω-butyl-polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS–E) grafted gelatin (PGG) into a gradient gelatin mesh template. The method can be used to prepare other composition gradient biopolymer films. Gradient mesh template prepared by the methacrylic anhydride cross-linked gelatin under temperature gradient field. The porosity of the template decreased from 89 to 35% which was accompanied by decrease in average pore size from 160 to 50 µm. Colloidal particles about 0.9~10 µm were formed from PGG after adding them to a mixed solvent system of 9:1 (v/v) of ethanol/water, which were filled in the mesh template under vacuum (0.06 MPa). A gradient film was obtained after drying at room temperature for 48 h. The results of scanning electron microscope-energy dispersive X-ray combined with freezing microtome and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy suggested that the distribution of the Si element along the thickness showed a typical gradient pattern, which led to hydrophilic/hydrophobic continuous changing along the thickness of film. The water vapor permeability, thermal gravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry and dynamic mechanical tensile results show that the gradient films had excellent water vapor permeability and flexibility, and hence could be used as biomimetic materials and leather finishing agents. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Critical Point Drying: An Effective Drying Method for Direct Measurement of the Surface Area of a Pretreated Cellulosic Biomass
Polymers 2018, 10(6), 676; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym10060676
Received: 24 May 2018 / Revised: 13 June 2018 / Accepted: 14 June 2018 / Published: 17 June 2018
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Abstract
The surface area and pore size distribution of Eucalyptus samples that were pretreated by different methods were determined by the Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) technique. Three methods were applied to prepare cellulosic biomass samples for the BET measurements, air, freeze, and critical point drying (CPD).
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The surface area and pore size distribution of Eucalyptus samples that were pretreated by different methods were determined by the Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) technique. Three methods were applied to prepare cellulosic biomass samples for the BET measurements, air, freeze, and critical point drying (CPD). The air and freeze drying caused a severe collapse of the biomass pore structures, but the CPD effectively preserved the biomass morphology. The surface area of the CPD prepared Eucalyptus samples were determined to be 58–161 m2/g, whereas the air and freeze dried samples were 0.5–1.3 and 1.0–2.4 m2/g, respectively. The average pore diameter of the CPD prepared Eucalyptus samples were 61–70 Å. The CPD preserved the Eucalyptus sample morphology by replacing water with a non-polar solvent, CO2 fluid, which prevented hydrogen bond reformation in the cellulose. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effect of a Surfactant in Microcapsule Synthesis on Self-Healing Behavior of Capsule Embedded Polymeric Films
Polymers 2018, 10(6), 675; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym10060675
Received: 11 May 2018 / Revised: 13 June 2018 / Accepted: 13 June 2018 / Published: 17 June 2018
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Abstract
Recently, there has been increased interest in self-healing membranes containing functional microcapsules in relation to challenges involving water treatment membranes. In this study, a self-healing membrane has been prepared by incorporating microcapsules with a polyurethane (PU) shell and a diisocyanate core in a
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Recently, there has been increased interest in self-healing membranes containing functional microcapsules in relation to challenges involving water treatment membranes. In this study, a self-healing membrane has been prepared by incorporating microcapsules with a polyurethane (PU) shell and a diisocyanate core in a poly(ether sulfone) (PES) membrane. Depending on the characteristics of the microcapsule, to precisely quantify the self-healing behavior and performance of the produced microcapsule embedded membranes, it is important to understand the effect of a used surfactant on microcapsule synthesis. It is noteworthy that mixed surfactants have been employed to control and tailor the size and morphology of microcapsules during the synthetic process, and the surfactant system employed was one of the most dominant parameters for affecting the healing capability of microcapsule embedded membranes. Various techniques including microscopy (optical and electron), thermal analyses (DSC and TGA), and water flux measurements have been employed. This article provides essential and important information for future research into the subtle relation between microcapsule properties with varied synthetic parameters and the self-healing behavior of membrane. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Hybrid Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Polymer Optical Fiber Bragg Gratings in CYTOP Fibers for Angle Measurement with Dynamic Compensation
Polymers 2018, 10(6), 674; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym10060674
Received: 16 May 2018 / Revised: 7 June 2018 / Accepted: 15 June 2018 / Published: 17 June 2018
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Abstract
This paper demonstrates the use of polymer optical fiber Bragg gratings (POFBGs) for angle measurements over a range of different oscillatory frequencies. The POFBGs are inscribed in low-loss, cyclic transparent amorphous fluoropolymers (CYTOP) and are imprinted using the direct-write, plane-by-plane femtosecond laser inscription
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This paper demonstrates the use of polymer optical fiber Bragg gratings (POFBGs) for angle measurements over a range of different oscillatory frequencies. The POFBGs are inscribed in low-loss, cyclic transparent amorphous fluoropolymers (CYTOP) and are imprinted using the direct-write, plane-by-plane femtosecond laser inscription method. As the polymer has a viscoelastic response and given that the Young’s modulus depends on the oscillatory frequency, a compensation technique for sensor frequency cross-sensitivity and hysteresis is proposed and verified. Results show that the proposed compensation technique is able to provide a root mean squared error (RMSE) reduction of 44%, and a RMSE as low as 2.20° was obtained when compared with a reference potentiometer. The hysteresis reduction provided by the proposed technique is 55%, with hysteresis <0.01. The results presented in this paper can pave the way for movement analysis with POFBG providing higher sensitivity and low hysteresis over a large range of motion frequencies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Holographic Materials and Photonic Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Wound Dressings Based on Chitosan-Dialdehyde Cellulose Nanocrystals-Silver Nanoparticles: Mechanical Strength, Antibacterial Activity and Cytotoxicity
Polymers 2018, 10(6), 673; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym10060673
Received: 1 June 2018 / Revised: 1 June 2018 / Accepted: 14 June 2018 / Published: 16 June 2018
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Abstract
The present work envisages a simple approach to synthesize a new wound dressing based on chitosan-dialdehyde cellulose nanocrystal-silver nanoparticles (CS-DCNC-AgNPs). Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were generated in-situ by periodate oxidation of cellulose nanocrystals to generate aldehyde functions, which were used to reduce Ag+
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The present work envisages a simple approach to synthesize a new wound dressing based on chitosan-dialdehyde cellulose nanocrystal-silver nanoparticles (CS-DCNC-AgNPs). Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were generated in-situ by periodate oxidation of cellulose nanocrystals to generate aldehyde functions, which were used to reduce Ag+ into Ag0 in mild alkaline conditions. Subsequently, the dialdehyde cellulose nanocrystal-silver nanoparticles (DCNC-AgNPs) were added to chitosan (CS) to form the wound dressings by solution casting method. The aim was to enhance the antibacterial effect of CS by incorporation of AgNPs and to improve the mechanical strength and hydrophobicity of CS by incorporation of DCNC that cross-linked by hydrogen bonds. The antibacterial activities were evaluated against five gram-negative bacteria, one gram-positive bacteria, and three fungi. The in vitro cytotoxicity assay was performed using the NIH3T3 cell lines by Sulforhodamine B assay. Research outputs signified that CS-DCNC-AgNPs possessed good mechanical strength and hydrophobicity, high antibacterial activity and less cytotoxicity. Our results propose that CS-DCNC-AgNPs can be a promising, safe antibacterial to be incorporated in wound dressings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polysaccharides)
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Open AccessArticle On the Mechanisms of the Effects of Ionizing Radiation on Diblock and Random Copolymers of Poly(Lactic Acid) and Poly(Trimethylene Carbonate)
Polymers 2018, 10(6), 672; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym10060672
Received: 9 May 2018 / Revised: 10 June 2018 / Accepted: 11 June 2018 / Published: 16 June 2018
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Abstract
This article demonstrates that ionizing radiation induces simultaneous crosslinking and scission in poly(trimethylene carbonate-co-d-lactide) diblock and random copolymers. Copolymer films were electron-beam (EB) irradiated up to 300 kGy under anaerobic conditions and subsequently examined by evaluation of their structure
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This article demonstrates that ionizing radiation induces simultaneous crosslinking and scission in poly(trimethylene carbonate-co-d-lactide) diblock and random copolymers. Copolymer films were electron-beam (EB) irradiated up to 300 kGy under anaerobic conditions and subsequently examined by evaluation of their structure (FT-IR, NMR), molecular weight, intrinsic viscosities, and thermal properties. Radiation chemistry of the copolymers is strongly influenced by the content of ester linkages of the lactide component. At low lactide content, crosslinking reaction is the dominant one; however, as the lactide ratio increases, the ester linkages scission becomes more competent and exceeds the crosslinking. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements indicate that higher content of amorphous carbonate units in copolymers leads to a reduction in free radical yield and faster radical decay as compared to lactide-rich compositions. The domination of scission of ester bonds was confirmed by identifying the radiolytically produced alkoxyl and acetyl radicals, the latter being more stable due to its conjugated structure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Radiation Effects in Polymers)
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Open AccessArticle A Numerical and Experimental Study on a Pre-Twisted Ring Spinning System
Polymers 2018, 10(6), 671; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym10060671
Received: 26 April 2018 / Revised: 9 June 2018 / Accepted: 14 June 2018 / Published: 16 June 2018
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Abstract
The ring spinning process is the most widely used method in the spinning industry. Nowadays, the labor cost become more and more expensive, and it is essential to improve productivity. For increasing the productivity, a modification of adding a pre-twister and holding roller
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The ring spinning process is the most widely used method in the spinning industry. Nowadays, the labor cost become more and more expensive, and it is essential to improve productivity. For increasing the productivity, a modification of adding a pre-twister and holding roller on the traditional ring spinning system have been discussed in this paper. The computational fluid dynamics (CFD) are introduced to study the effects of pre-twister and spinning tests are implemented for verification. The numerical simulations show that the cavity conical degree and nozzle numbers of the pre-twister are the key parameters which affect the airflow fluctuation in the cavity, and have obvious effects on the resultant yarn twist. By contrast, the axial angle and tangential angle of the nozzle have less effect on the resultant yarn twist. When the fiber bundles pass by the front nip, they are affected by the vortex and result in a partially strengthened and wrapped structure which could be subsequently twisted less by the traveler and ring, so the productivity could be potentially increased. According to the spinning tests, an evident productivity increase by nearly 30% for medium cotton yarns can be achieved, and the yarns have an acceptable reduction in nearly all properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Textile and Textile-Based Materials)
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