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Crystals 2017, 7(11), 333; doi:10.3390/cryst7110333

Comparative Study of Phase Transformation in Single-Crystal Germanium during Single and Cyclic Nanoindentation

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, Yokohama 2238522, Japan
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Academic Editors: Ronald W. Armstrong, Stephen M. Walley and Wayne L. Elban
Received: 30 September 2017 / Revised: 29 October 2017 / Accepted: 30 October 2017 / Published: 1 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Crystal Indentation Hardness)
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Abstract

Single-crystal germanium is a semiconductor material which shows complicated phase transformation under high pressure. In this study, new insight into the phase transformation of diamond-cubic germanium (dc-Ge) was attempted by controlled cyclic nanoindentation combined with Raman spectroscopic analysis. Phase transformation from dc-Ge to rhombohedral phase (r8-Ge) was experimentally confirmed for both single and cyclic nanoindentation under high loading/unloading rates. However, compared to single indentation, double cyclic indentation with a low holding load between the cycles caused more frequent phase transformation events. Double cyclic indentation caused more stress in Ge than single indentation and increased the possibility of phase transformation. With increase in the holding load, the number of phase transformation events decreased and finally became less than that under single indentation. This phenomenon was possibly caused by defect nucleation and shear accumulation during the holding process, which were promoted by a high holding load. The defect nucleation suppressed the phase transformation from dc-Ge to r8-Ge, and shear accumulation led to another phase transformation pathway, respectively. A high holding load promoted these two phenomena, and thus decreased the possibility of phase transformation from dc-Ge to r8-Ge. View Full-Text
Keywords: single crystal; germanium; nanoindentation; phase transformation; crystal defect; cyclic load single crystal; germanium; nanoindentation; phase transformation; crystal defect; cyclic load
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Kosai, K.; Huang, H.; Yan, J. Comparative Study of Phase Transformation in Single-Crystal Germanium during Single and Cyclic Nanoindentation. Crystals 2017, 7, 333.

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