Special Issue "Crystal Indentation Hardness"

A special issue of Crystals (ISSN 2073-4352). This special issue belongs to the section "Crystal Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2017)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Ronald W. Armstrong

Department of Mechanical Engineering, A. James Clark School of Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA
Website | E-Mail
Interests: crystal dislocations; x-ray diffraction imaging; polycrystalline microstructures; mechanical properties; constitutive equations
Guest Editor
Dr. Stephen M. Walley

Cavendish Laboratory, J.J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE, UK
Website | E-Mail
Interests: high rate deformation; history of mechanical testing of materials; energetic crystals and polymers
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Wayne L. Elban

Department of Engineering, Loyola University Maryland, Baltimore, MD 21210, USA
Website | E-Mail
Interests: mechanical properties; indentation hardness; microstructural characterization; historical ferrous metallurgy

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Determinations of the indentation hardness properties of crystals have expanded to cover the full characterizations of their important elastic, plastic and cracking behaviors, particularly as accomplished with the increased measuring capabilities of nanoindentation hardness testing. No crystal structure of any bonding type is either too soft or too hard to prevent measurement with a suitable probing indenter. The current Special Issue is devoted to surveying the topic with emphasis given in a collection of reports to: (1) the diversity of crystals being tested; (2) the variety of measuring techniques; and (3) the wealth of information being obtained.

Prof. Dr. Ron Armstrong
Prof. Dr. Stephen Walley
Prof. Dr. Wayne L. Elban
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Crystals is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • indentation hardness
  • nanoindentation testing
  • elastic loading
  • plastic deformation
  • indentation fracture mechanics

Published Papers (15 papers)

View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-15
Export citation of selected articles as:

Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review

Open AccessEditorial Crystal Indentation Hardness
Crystals 2017, 7(1), 21; doi:10.3390/cryst7010021
Received: 5 January 2017 / Accepted: 6 January 2017 / Published: 12 January 2017
PDF Full-text (2662 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
There is expanded interest in the long-standing subject of the hardness properties of materials. A major part of such interest is due to the advent of nanoindentation hardness testing systems which have made available orders of magnitude increases in load and displacement measuring
[...] Read more.
There is expanded interest in the long-standing subject of the hardness properties of materials. A major part of such interest is due to the advent of nanoindentation hardness testing systems which have made available orders of magnitude increases in load and displacement measuring capabilities achieved in a continuously recorded test procedure. The new results have been smoothly merged with other advances in conventional hardness testing and with parallel developments in improved model descriptions of both elastic contact mechanics and dislocation mechanisms operative in the understanding of crystal plasticity and fracturing behaviors. No crystal is either too soft or too hard to prevent the determination of its elastic, plastic and cracking properties under a suitable probing indenter. A sampling of the wealth of measurements and reported analyses associated with the topic on a wide variety of materials are presented in the current Special Issue. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Crystal Indentation Hardness)
Figures

Figure 1

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

Open AccessArticle The Effect of the Vertex Angles of Wedged Indenters on Deformation during Nanoindentation
Crystals 2017, 7(12), 380; doi:10.3390/cryst7120380
Received: 30 September 2017 / Revised: 11 December 2017 / Accepted: 12 December 2017 / Published: 14 December 2017
PDF Full-text (18733 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In order to study the effect of the angle of wedged indenters during nanoindentation, indenters with half vertex angles of 60°, 70° and 80° are used for the simulations of nanoindentation on FCC aluminum (Al) bulk material by the multiscale quasicontinuum method (QC).
[...] Read more.
In order to study the effect of the angle of wedged indenters during nanoindentation, indenters with half vertex angles of 60°, 70° and 80° are used for the simulations of nanoindentation on FCC aluminum (Al) bulk material by the multiscale quasicontinuum method (QC). The load-displacement responses, the strain energy-displacement responses, and hardness of Al bulk material are obtained. Besides, atomic configurations for each loading situation are presented. We analyze the drop points in the load-displacement responses, which correspond to the changes of microstructure in the bulk material. From the atom images, the generation of partial dislocations as well as the nucleation and the emission of perfect dislocations have been observed with wedged indenters of half vertex angles of 60° and 70°, but not 80°. The stacking faults move beneath the indenter along the direction [ 1 1 ¯ 0 ] . The microstructures of residual displacements are also discussed. In addition, hardness of the Al bulk material is different in simulations with wedged indenters of half vertex angles of 60° and 70°, and critical hardness in the simulation with the 70° indenter is bigger than that with the 60° indenter. The size effect of hardness in plastic wedged nanoindentation is observed. There are fewer abrupt drops in the strain energy-displacement response than in the load-displacement response, and the abrupt drops in strain energy-displacement response reflect the nucleation of perfect dislocations or extended dislocations rather than partial dislocations. The wedged indenter with half vertex angle of 70° is recommended for investigating dislocations during nanoindentation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Crystal Indentation Hardness)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Vickers Hardness of Diamond and cBN Single Crystals: AFM Approach
Crystals 2017, 7(12), 369; doi:10.3390/cryst7120369
Received: 23 October 2017 / Revised: 4 December 2017 / Accepted: 5 December 2017 / Published: 12 December 2017
PDF Full-text (19045 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Atomic force microscopy in different operation modes (topography, derivative topography, and phase contrast) was used to obtain 3D images of Vickers indents on the surface of diamond and cBN single crystals with high spatial resolution. Confocal Raman spectroscopy and Kelvin probe force microscopy
[...] Read more.
Atomic force microscopy in different operation modes (topography, derivative topography, and phase contrast) was used to obtain 3D images of Vickers indents on the surface of diamond and cBN single crystals with high spatial resolution. Confocal Raman spectroscopy and Kelvin probe force microscopy were used to study the structure of the material in the indents. It was found that Vickers indents in diamond has no sharp and clear borders. However, the phase contrast operation mode of the AFM reveals a new viscoelastic phase in the indent in diamond. Raman spectroscopy and Kelvin probe force microscopy revealed that the new phase in the indent is disordered graphite, which was formed due to the pressure-induced phase transformation in the diamond during the hardness test. The projected contact area of the graphite layer in the indent allows us to measure the Vickers hardness of type-Ib synthetic diamond. In contrast to diamond, very high plasticity was observed for 0.5 N load indents on the (001) cBN single crystal face. Radial and ring cracks were absent, the shape of the indents was close to a square, and there were linear details in the indent, which looked like slip lines. The Vickers hardness of the (111) synthetic diamond and (111) and (001) cBN single crystals were determined using the AFM images and with account for the elastic deformation of the diamond Vickers indenter during the tests. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Crystal Indentation Hardness)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Quantitative Imaging of the Stress/Strain Fields and Generation of Macroscopic Cracks from Indents in Silicon
Crystals 2017, 7(11), 347; doi:10.3390/cryst7110347
Received: 10 October 2017 / Revised: 7 November 2017 / Accepted: 8 November 2017 / Published: 14 November 2017
PDF Full-text (10805 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The crack geometry and associated strain field around Berkovich and Vickers indents on silicon have been studied by X-ray diffraction imaging and micro-Raman spectroscopy scanning. The techniques are complementary; the Raman data come from within a few micrometres of the indentation, whereas the
[...] Read more.
The crack geometry and associated strain field around Berkovich and Vickers indents on silicon have been studied by X-ray diffraction imaging and micro-Raman spectroscopy scanning. The techniques are complementary; the Raman data come from within a few micrometres of the indentation, whereas the X-ray image probes the strain field at a distance of typically tens of micrometres. For example, Raman data provide an explanation for the central contrast feature in the X-ray images of an indent. Strain relaxation from breakout and high temperature annealing are examined and it is demonstrated that millimetre length cracks, similar to those produced by mechanical damage from misaligned handling tools, can be generated in a controlled fashion by indentation within 75 micrometres of the bevel edge of 200 mm diameter wafers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Crystal Indentation Hardness)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Microindentation Hardness of Protein Crystals under Controlled Relative Humidity
Crystals 2017, 7(11), 339; doi:10.3390/cryst7110339
Received: 9 October 2017 / Revised: 30 October 2017 / Accepted: 31 October 2017 / Published: 4 November 2017
PDF Full-text (2498 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Vickers microindentation hardness of protein crystals was investigated on the (110) habit plane of tetragonal hen egg-white lysozyme crystals containing intracrystalline water at controlled relative humidity. The time evolution of the hardness of the crystals exposed to air with different humidities exhibits three
[...] Read more.
Vickers microindentation hardness of protein crystals was investigated on the (110) habit plane of tetragonal hen egg-white lysozyme crystals containing intracrystalline water at controlled relative humidity. The time evolution of the hardness of the crystals exposed to air with different humidities exhibits three stages such as the incubation, transition, and saturation stages. The hardness in the incubation stage keeps a constant value of 16 MPa, which is independent of the humidity. The incubation hardness can correspond to the intrinsic one in the wet condition. The increase of the hardness in the transition and saturation stages is well fitted with the single exponential curve, and is correlated with the reduction of water content in the crystal by the evaporation. The saturated maximum hardness also strongly depends on the water content equilibrated with the humidity. The slip traces corresponding to the (11 ̅0)[110] slip system around the indentation marks are observed in not only incubation but also saturation stages. It is suggested that the plastic deformation in protein crystals by the indentation can be attributed to dislocation multiplication and motion inducing the slip. The indentation hardness in protein crystals is discussed in light of dislocation mechanism with Peierls stress and intracrystalline water. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Crystal Indentation Hardness)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Nanoindentation of HMX and Idoxuridine to Determine Mechanical Similarity
Crystals 2017, 7(11), 335; doi:10.3390/cryst7110335
Received: 28 September 2017 / Revised: 27 October 2017 / Accepted: 28 October 2017 / Published: 1 November 2017
PDF Full-text (1455 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Assessing the mechanical behavior (elastic properties, plastic properties, and fracture phenomena) of molecular crystals is often complicated by the difficulty in preparing samples. Pharmaceuticals and energetic materials in particular are often used in composite structures or tablets, where the individual grains can strongly
[...] Read more.
Assessing the mechanical behavior (elastic properties, plastic properties, and fracture phenomena) of molecular crystals is often complicated by the difficulty in preparing samples. Pharmaceuticals and energetic materials in particular are often used in composite structures or tablets, where the individual grains can strongly impact the solid behavior. Nanoindentation is a convenient method to experimentally assess these properties, and it is used here to demonstrate the similarity in the mechanical properties of two distinct systems: individual crystals of the explosive cyclotetramethylene tetranitramine (HMX) and the pharmaceutical idoxuridine were tested in their as-precipitated state, and the effective average modulus and hardness (which can be orientation dependent) were determined. Both exhibit a hardness of 1.0 GPa, with an effective reduced modulus of 25 and 23 GPa for the HMX and idoxuridine, respectively. They also exhibit similar yield point behavior. This indicates idoxuridine may be a suitable mechanical surrogate (or “mock”) for HMX. While the methodology to assess elastic and plastic properties was relatively insensitive to specific crystal orientation (i.e., a uniform distribution in properties was observed for all random crystals tested), the indentation-induced fracture properties appear to be much more sensitive to tip-crystal orientation, and an unloading slope analysis is used to demonstrate the need for further refinement in relating toughness to orientation in these materials with relatively complex slip systems and crystal structures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Crystal Indentation Hardness)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Comparative Study of Phase Transformation in Single-Crystal Germanium during Single and Cyclic Nanoindentation
Crystals 2017, 7(11), 333; doi:10.3390/cryst7110333
Received: 30 September 2017 / Revised: 29 October 2017 / Accepted: 30 October 2017 / Published: 1 November 2017
PDF Full-text (3427 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Single-crystal germanium is a semiconductor material which shows complicated phase transformation under high pressure. In this study, new insight into the phase transformation of diamond-cubic germanium (dc-Ge) was attempted by controlled cyclic nanoindentation combined with Raman spectroscopic analysis. Phase transformation from dc-Ge to
[...] Read more.
Single-crystal germanium is a semiconductor material which shows complicated phase transformation under high pressure. In this study, new insight into the phase transformation of diamond-cubic germanium (dc-Ge) was attempted by controlled cyclic nanoindentation combined with Raman spectroscopic analysis. Phase transformation from dc-Ge to rhombohedral phase (r8-Ge) was experimentally confirmed for both single and cyclic nanoindentation under high loading/unloading rates. However, compared to single indentation, double cyclic indentation with a low holding load between the cycles caused more frequent phase transformation events. Double cyclic indentation caused more stress in Ge than single indentation and increased the possibility of phase transformation. With increase in the holding load, the number of phase transformation events decreased and finally became less than that under single indentation. This phenomenon was possibly caused by defect nucleation and shear accumulation during the holding process, which were promoted by a high holding load. The defect nucleation suppressed the phase transformation from dc-Ge to r8-Ge, and shear accumulation led to another phase transformation pathway, respectively. A high holding load promoted these two phenomena, and thus decreased the possibility of phase transformation from dc-Ge to r8-Ge. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Crystal Indentation Hardness)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Atomistic Studies of Nanoindentation—A Review of Recent Advances
Crystals 2017, 7(10), 293; doi:10.3390/cryst7100293
Received: 12 September 2017 / Revised: 25 September 2017 / Accepted: 26 September 2017 / Published: 29 September 2017
PDF Full-text (1506 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This review covers areas where our understanding of the mechanisms underlying nanoindentation has been increased by atomistic studies of the nanoindentation process. While such studies have been performed now for more than 20 years, recent investigations have demonstrated that the peculiar features of
[...] Read more.
This review covers areas where our understanding of the mechanisms underlying nanoindentation has been increased by atomistic studies of the nanoindentation process. While such studies have been performed now for more than 20 years, recent investigations have demonstrated that the peculiar features of nanoplasticity generated during indentation can be analyzed in considerable detail by this technique. Topics covered include: nucleation of dislocations in ideal crystals, effect of surface orientation, effect of crystallography (fcc, bcc, hcp), effect of surface and bulk damage on plasticity, nanocrystalline samples, and multiple (sequential) indentation. In addition we discuss related features, such as the influence of tip geometry on the indentation and the role of adhesive forces, and how pre-existing plasticity affects nanoindentation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Crystal Indentation Hardness)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Mechanical Anisotropy in Austenitic NiMnGa Alloy: Nanoindentation Studies
Crystals 2017, 7(8), 254; doi:10.3390/cryst7080254
Received: 23 June 2017 / Revised: 14 August 2017 / Accepted: 15 August 2017 / Published: 17 August 2017
PDF Full-text (2617 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Abstract: Mechanical anisotropy in an austenitic ferromagnetic shape memory alloy (SMA), Ni50Mn26.25Ga23.75, is investigated along (010), (120), (121), (231) and (232) using nanoindentation. While (010) exhibits the highest reduced modulus, Er, and hardness, H
[...] Read more.
Abstract: Mechanical anisotropy in an austenitic ferromagnetic shape memory alloy (SMA), Ni50Mn26.25Ga23.75, is investigated along (010), (120), (121), (231) and (232) using nanoindentation. While (010) exhibits the highest reduced modulus, Er, and hardness, H, (232) shows the lowest amongst the grain orientations examined in this study. The significant elastic anisotropy measured is attributed to differences in planar packing density and number of in-plane Ni–Mn and Ni–Ga bonds, whereas the plastic anisotropy is due to the differences in the onset of slip, which is rationalized by recourse to Schmid factor calculations. This would help determine the grain orientations in austenitic NiMnGa which exhibit better mechanical properties for SMA applications such as improving vibration damping characteristics of the alloy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Crystal Indentation Hardness)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Atomistic Insights into the Effects of Residual Stress during Nanoindentation
Crystals 2017, 7(8), 240; doi:10.3390/cryst7080240
Received: 21 June 2017 / Revised: 26 July 2017 / Accepted: 30 July 2017 / Published: 1 August 2017
PDF Full-text (29091 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The influence of in-plane residual stress on Hertzian nanoindentation for single-crystal copper thin film is investigated using molecular dynamics simulations (MD). It is found that: (i) the yield strength of incipient plasticity increases with compressive residual stress, but decreases with tensile residual stress;
[...] Read more.
The influence of in-plane residual stress on Hertzian nanoindentation for single-crystal copper thin film is investigated using molecular dynamics simulations (MD). It is found that: (i) the yield strength of incipient plasticity increases with compressive residual stress, but decreases with tensile residual stress; (ii) the hardness decreases with tensile residual stress, and increases with compressive residual stress, but abruptly drops down at a higher compressive residual stress level, because of the deterioration of the surface; (iii) the indentation modulus reduces linearly with decreasing compressive residual stress (and with increasing tensile residual stress). It can be concluded from the MD simulations that the residual stress not only strongly influences the dislocation evolution of the plastic deformation process, but also significantly affects the size of the plastic zone. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Crystal Indentation Hardness)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Theoretical Study on Electronic, Optical Properties and Hardness of Technetium Phosphides under High Pressure
Crystals 2017, 7(6), 176; doi:10.3390/cryst7060176
Received: 4 April 2017 / Revised: 18 May 2017 / Accepted: 15 June 2017 / Published: 18 June 2017
PDF Full-text (1950 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, the structural properties of technetium phosphides Tc3P and TcP4 are investigated by first principles at zero pressure and compared with the experimental values. In addition, the electronic properties of these two crystals in the pressure range of
[...] Read more.
In this paper, the structural properties of technetium phosphides Tc3P and TcP4 are investigated by first principles at zero pressure and compared with the experimental values. In addition, the electronic properties of these two crystals in the pressure range of 0–40 GPa are investigated. Further, we discuss the change in the optical properties of technetium phosphides at high pressures. At the end of our study, we focus on the research of the hardness of TcP4 at different pressures by employing a semiempirical method, and the effect of pressure on the hardness is studied. Results show that the hardness of TcP4 increases with the increasing pressure, and the influence mechanism of pressure effect on the hardness of TcP4 is also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Crystal Indentation Hardness)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Application of the Improved Inclusion Core Model of the Indentation Process for the Determination of Mechanical Properties of Materials
Crystals 2017, 7(3), 87; doi:10.3390/cryst7030087
Received: 9 February 2017 / Revised: 7 March 2017 / Accepted: 14 March 2017 / Published: 16 March 2017
PDF Full-text (2170 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The improved Johnson inclusion core model of indentation by conical and pyramidal indenters in which indenter is elastically deformed and a specimen is elastoplastically deformed under von Mises yield condition, was used for determination of mechanical properties of materials with different types of
[...] Read more.
The improved Johnson inclusion core model of indentation by conical and pyramidal indenters in which indenter is elastically deformed and a specimen is elastoplastically deformed under von Mises yield condition, was used for determination of mechanical properties of materials with different types of interatomic bond and different crystalline structures. This model enables us to determine approximately the Tabor parameter С = НМ/YS (where НМ is the Meyer hardness and YS is the yield stress of the specimen), size of the elastoplastic zone in the specimen, effective apex angle of the indenter under load, and effective angle of the indent after unloading. It was shown that the Tabor parameter and the size of elastoplastic deformation zone increase monotonically with the increase of the plasticity characteristic indentation test results significantly more informative. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Crystal Indentation Hardness)
Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Editorial, Research

Open AccessReview Indentation Plasticity and Fracture Studies of Organic Crystals
Crystals 2017, 7(11), 324; doi:10.3390/cryst7110324
Received: 23 September 2017 / Revised: 18 October 2017 / Accepted: 23 October 2017 / Published: 27 October 2017
PDF Full-text (9406 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This review article summarizes the recent advances in measuring and understanding the indentation-induced plastic deformation and fracture behavior of single crystals of a wide variety of organic molecules and pharmaceutical compounds. The importance of hardness measurement for molecular crystals at the nanoscale, methods
[...] Read more.
This review article summarizes the recent advances in measuring and understanding the indentation-induced plastic deformation and fracture behavior of single crystals of a wide variety of organic molecules and pharmaceutical compounds. The importance of hardness measurement for molecular crystals at the nanoscale, methods and models used so far to analyze and estimate the hardness of the crystals, factors affecting the indentation hardness of organic crystals, correlation of the mechanical properties to their underlying crystal packing, and fracture toughness studies of molecular crystals are reviewed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Crystal Indentation Hardness)
Figures

Open AccessReview Review of Nanoindentation Size Effect: Experiments and Atomistic Simulation
Crystals 2017, 7(10), 321; doi:10.3390/cryst7100321
Received: 26 September 2017 / Revised: 17 October 2017 / Accepted: 20 October 2017 / Published: 23 October 2017
PDF Full-text (11185 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Nanoindentation is a well-stablished experiment to study the mechanical properties of materials at the small length scales of micro and nano. Unlike the conventional indentation experiments, the nanoindentation response of the material depends on the corresponding length scales, such as indentation depth, which
[...] Read more.
Nanoindentation is a well-stablished experiment to study the mechanical properties of materials at the small length scales of micro and nano. Unlike the conventional indentation experiments, the nanoindentation response of the material depends on the corresponding length scales, such as indentation depth, which is commonly termed the size effect. In the current work, first, the conventional experimental observations and theoretical models of the size effect during nanoindentation are reviewed in the case of crystalline metals, which are the focus of the current work. Next, the recent advancements in the visualization of the dislocation structure during the nanoindentation experiment is discussed, and the observed underlying mechanisms of the size effect are addressed. Finally, the recent computer simulations using molecular dynamics are reviewed as a powerful tool to investigate the nanoindentation experiment and its governing mechanisms of the size effect. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Crystal Indentation Hardness)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview Progress in Indentation Study of Materials via Both Experimental and Numerical Methods
Crystals 2017, 7(10), 258; doi:10.3390/cryst7100258
Received: 19 June 2017 / Revised: 8 August 2017 / Accepted: 9 August 2017 / Published: 13 October 2017
PDF Full-text (16311 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Indentation as a method to characterize materials has a history of more than 117 years. However, to date, it is still the most popular way to measure the mechanical properties of various materials at microscale and nanoscale. This review summarizes the background and
[...] Read more.
Indentation as a method to characterize materials has a history of more than 117 years. However, to date, it is still the most popular way to measure the mechanical properties of various materials at microscale and nanoscale. This review summarizes the background and the basic principle of processing by indentation. It is demonstrated that indentation is an effective and efficient method to identify mechanical properties, such as hardness, Young’s modulus, etc., of materials at smaller scale, when the traditional tensile tests could not be applied. The review also describes indentation process via both experimental tests and numerical modelling in recent studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Crystal Indentation Hardness)
Figures

Figure 1

Back to Top