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Cancers 2017, 9(2), 13; doi:10.3390/cancers9020013

Immune Modulation by Androgen Deprivation and Radiation Therapy: Implications for Prostate Cancer Immunotherapy

1
Trev and Joyce Deeley Research Centre, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Victoria, BC V8R 6V5, Canada
2
Department of Biochemistry & Microbiology, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC V8P 5C2, Canada
3
British Columbia Cancer Agency, Victoria, BC, V8R 6V5, Canada
4
Department of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V5Z 1M9, Canada
5
Department of Surgery, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V5Z 1M9, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 December 2016 / Accepted: 20 January 2017 / Published: 27 January 2017
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Abstract

Prostate cancer patients often receive androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) in combination with radiation therapy (RT). Recent evidence suggests that both ADT and RT have immune modulatory properties. First, ADT can cause infiltration of lymphocytes into the prostate, although it remains unclear whether the influx of lymphocytes is beneficial, particularly with the advent of new classes of androgen blockers. Second, in rare cases, radiation can elicit immune responses that mediate regression of metastatic lesions lying outside the field of radiation, a phenomenon known as the abscopal response. In light of these findings, there is emerging interest in exploiting any potential synergy between ADT, RT, and immunotherapy. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of the rationale behind combining immunotherapy with ADT and RT for the treatment of prostate cancer, including an examination of the current clinical trials that employ this combination. The reported outcomes of several trials demonstrate the promise of this combination strategy; however, further scrutiny is needed to elucidate how these standard therapies interact with immune modulators. In addition, we discuss the importance of synchronizing immune modulation relative to ADT and RT, and provide insight into elements that may impact the ability to achieve maximum synergy between these treatments. View Full-Text
Keywords: androgen deprivation therapy; radiation therapy; immunotherapy; prostate cancer; cancer vaccines; checkpoint inhibitors androgen deprivation therapy; radiation therapy; immunotherapy; prostate cancer; cancer vaccines; checkpoint inhibitors
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Kalina, J.L.; Neilson, D.S.; Comber, A.P.; Rauw, J.M.; Alexander, A.S.; Vergidis, J.; Lum, J.J. Immune Modulation by Androgen Deprivation and Radiation Therapy: Implications for Prostate Cancer Immunotherapy. Cancers 2017, 9, 13.

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