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Cancers 2015, 7(2), 574-584;

Improved Beam Angle Arrangement in Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy Treatment Planning for Localized Prostate Cancer

Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204, USA
Applied Research, Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA 94304, USA
Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Robert Weiss
Received: 18 January 2015 / Revised: 17 March 2015 / Accepted: 23 March 2015 / Published: 30 March 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Proton Therapy for Cancer)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1451 KB, uploaded 30 March 2015]   |  


Purpose: This study investigates potential gains of an improved beam angle arrangement compared to a conventional fixed gantry setup in intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) treatment for localized prostate cancer patients based on a proof of principle study. Materials and Methods: Three patients with localized prostate cancer retrospectively selected from our institution were studied. For each patient, IMPT plans were designed using two, three and four beam angles, respectively, obtained from a beam angle optimization algorithm. Those plans were then compared with ones using two lateral parallel-opposed beams according to the conventional planning protocol for localized prostate cancer adopted at our institution. Results: IMPT plans with two optimized angles achieved significant improvements in rectum sparing and moderate improvements in bladder sparing against those with two lateral angles. Plans with three optimized angles further improved rectum sparing significantly over those two-angle plans, whereas four-angle plans found no advantage over three-angle plans. A possible three-beam class solution for localized prostate patients was suggested and demonstrated with preserved dosimetric benefits because individually optimized three-angle solutions were found sharing a very similar pattern. Conclusions: This study has demonstrated the potential of using an improved beam angle arrangement to better exploit the theoretical dosimetric benefits of proton therapy and provided insights of selecting quality beam angles for localized prostate cancer treatment. View Full-Text
Keywords: IMPT; treatment planning; beam angle optimization; prostate cancer IMPT; treatment planning; beam angle optimization; prostate cancer

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Cao, W.; Lim, G.J.; Li, Y.; Zhu, X.R.; Zhang, X. Improved Beam Angle Arrangement in Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy Treatment Planning for Localized Prostate Cancer. Cancers 2015, 7, 574-584.

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