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Lentiviral Vectors for Cancer Immunotherapy and Clinical Applications
University College London, 5 University Street, London, WC1E 6JF, UK
Navarrabiomed Fundacion Miguel Servet, 3 Irunlarrea St., Hospital Complex of Navarra, 31008 Pamplona, Navarra, Spain
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 10 May 2013; in revised form: 7 June 2013 / Accepted: 21 June 2013 / Published: 2 July 2013
Abstract: The success of immunotherapy against infectious diseases has shown us the powerful potential that such a treatment offers, and substantial work has been done to apply this strategy in the fight against cancer. Cancer is however a fiercer opponent than pathogen-caused diseases due to natural tolerance towards tumour associated antigens and tumour-induced immunosuppression. Recent gene therapy clinical trials with viral vectors have shown clinical efficacy in the correction of genetic diseases, HIV and cancer. The first successful gene therapy clinical trials were carried out with onco(g-)retroviral vectors but oncogenesis by insertional mutagenesis appeared as a serious complication. Lentiviral vectors have emerged as a potentially safer strategy, and recently the first clinical trial of patients with advanced leukemia using lentiviral vectors has proven successful. Additionally, therapeutic lentivectors have shown clinical efficacy for the treatment of HIV, X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy, and b-thalassaemia. This review aims at describing lentivectors and how they can be utilized to boost anti-tumour immune responses by manipulating the effector immune cells.
Keywords: lentiviral vector; cancer immunotherapy; gene therapy; antigen presentation; dendritic cells
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MDPI and ACS Style
Liechtenstein, T.; Perez-Janices, N.; Escors, D. Lentiviral Vectors for Cancer Immunotherapy and Clinical Applications. Cancers 2013, 5, 815-837.
Liechtenstein T, Perez-Janices N, Escors D. Lentiviral Vectors for Cancer Immunotherapy and Clinical Applications. Cancers. 2013; 5(3):815-837.
Liechtenstein, Therese; Perez-Janices, Noemi; Escors, David. 2013. "Lentiviral Vectors for Cancer Immunotherapy and Clinical Applications." Cancers 5, no. 3: 815-837.