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Epigenetics and Colorectal Cancer Pathogenesis
Cancers 2013, 5(3), 786-814; doi:10.3390/cancers5030786
Review

Alterations of 5-Hydroxymethylcytosine in Human Cancers

1,2
,
1
,
1,3
,
1,3
 and
1,3,*
1 Section of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, The University of Chicago, 5841 S. Maryland Ave., MC 2115, Chicago, IL 60637, USA 2 Committee on Molecular Pathogenesis and Molecular Medicine, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA 3 Committee on Cancer Biology, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 March 2013 / Revised: 16 May 2013 / Accepted: 29 May 2013 / Published: 25 June 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer Epigenetics)
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Abstract

Prior to 2009, 5-methylcytosine (5-mC) was thought to be the only biologically significant cytosine modification in mammalian DNA. With the discovery of the TET enzymes, which convert 5-methylcytosine (5-mC) to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC), however, intense interest has emerged in determining the biological function of 5-hmC. Here, we review the techniques used to study 5-hmC and evidence that alterations to 5-hmC physiology play a functional role in the molecular pathogenesis of human cancers.
Keywords: 5-hydroxymethylcytosine; 5-methylcytosine; cancer; DNA methylation; epigenetics; ten-eleven translocation; TET 5-hydroxymethylcytosine; 5-methylcytosine; cancer; DNA methylation; epigenetics; ten-eleven translocation; TET
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Mariani, C.J.; Madzo, J.; Moen, E.L.; Yesilkanal, A.; Godley, L.A. Alterations of 5-Hydroxymethylcytosine in Human Cancers. Cancers 2013, 5, 786-814.

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