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Alterations of 5-Hydroxymethylcytosine in Human Cancers
Section of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, The University of Chicago, 5841 S. Maryland Ave., MC 2115, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
Committee on Molecular Pathogenesis and Molecular Medicine, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
Committee on Cancer Biology, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 March 2013; in revised form: 16 May 2013 / Accepted: 29 May 2013 / Published: 25 June 2013
Abstract: Prior to 2009, 5-methylcytosine (5-mC) was thought to be the only biologically significant cytosine modification in mammalian DNA. With the discovery of the TET enzymes, which convert 5-methylcytosine (5-mC) to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC), however, intense interest has emerged in determining the biological function of 5-hmC. Here, we review the techniques used to study 5-hmC and evidence that alterations to 5-hmC physiology play a functional role in the molecular pathogenesis of human cancers.
Keywords: 5-hydroxymethylcytosine; 5-methylcytosine; cancer; DNA methylation; epigenetics; ten-eleven translocation; TET
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Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Mariani, C.J.; Madzo, J.; Moen, E.L.; Yesilkanal, A.; Godley, L.A. Alterations of 5-Hydroxymethylcytosine in Human Cancers. Cancers 2013, 5, 786-814.
Mariani CJ, Madzo J, Moen EL, Yesilkanal A, Godley LA. Alterations of 5-Hydroxymethylcytosine in Human Cancers. Cancers. 2013; 5(3):786-814.
Mariani, Christopher J.; Madzo, Jozef; Moen, Erika L.; Yesilkanal, Ali; Godley, Lucy A. 2013. "Alterations of 5-Hydroxymethylcytosine in Human Cancers." Cancers 5, no. 3: 786-814.