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A microRNA Link to Glioblastoma Heterogeneity
The Arthur and Sonia Labatt Brain Tumor Research Centre, Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1L7, Canada
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 May 2012; in revised form: 28 July 2012 / Accepted: 21 August 2012 / Published: 3 September 2012
Abstract: Glioblastomas (GBM) are one of the most malignant adult primary brain tumors. Through decades of research using various model systems and GBM patients, we have gained considerable insights into the mechanisms regulating GBM pathogenesis, but have mostly failed to significantly improve clinical outcome. For the most part GBM heterogeneity is responsible for this lack of progress. Here, we have discussed sources of cellular and microenvironmental heterogeneity in GBMs and their potential regulation through microRNA mediated mechanisms. We have focused on the role of individual microRNAs (miRNA) through their specific targets and miRNA mediated RNA-RNA interaction networks with the potential to influence various aspects of GBM heterogeneity including tumor neo-vascularization. We believe a better understanding of such mechanisms for regulation of GBM pathogenesis will be instrumental for future therapeutic options.
Keywords: glioma; glioblastoma; microRNA; angiogenesis; glioma stem cells; metabolism; Warburg effect
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Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Singh, S.K.; Vartanian, A.; Burrell, K.; Zadeh, G. A microRNA Link to Glioblastoma Heterogeneity. Cancers 2012, 4, 846-872.
Singh SK, Vartanian A, Burrell K, Zadeh G. A microRNA Link to Glioblastoma Heterogeneity. Cancers. 2012; 4(3):846-872.
Singh, Sanjay K.; Vartanian, Alenoush; Burrell, Kelly; Zadeh, Gelareh. 2012. "A microRNA Link to Glioblastoma Heterogeneity." Cancers 4, no. 3: 846-872.