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Sputum-Based Molecular Biomarkers for the Early Detection of Lung Cancer: Limitations and Promise
Cancers 2011, 3(4), 4258-4268; doi:10.3390/cancers3044258
Review

NF-kappaB in Lung Tumorigenesis

1
, 1,2
 and 1,2,*
1 Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, Department of Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, 462 First Avenue, NBV 7N24, New York, NY 10016, USA 2 Department of Environmental Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, 57 Old Forge Road, Tuxedo, NY 10987, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 October 2011 / Revised: 29 November 2011 / Accepted: 6 December 2011 / Published: 14 December 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lung Cancer)
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Abstract

The development of lung cancer in humans can be divided into three steps: initiation, promotion and progression. This process is driven by alterations in related signal transduction pathways. These pathways signal the aberrant activation of NF-kappaB, a transcription factor that regulates the expression of genes important for lung tumorigenesis. Our current knowledge about the role of the NF-kappaB signaling pathway in the development of lung cancer has been bolstered by animal models demonstrating the connection between K-ras and tobacco induced lung transformation with NF-kappaB. Activation of downstream genes leads to cell proliferation, inhibition of apoptosis, angiogenesis, inflammation, invasion, and metastasis.
Keywords: NF-kappaB; lung cancer; tumorigenesis; tumor initiation; tumor promotion; tumor progression NF-kappaB; lung cancer; tumorigenesis; tumor initiation; tumor promotion; tumor progression
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Cai, Z.; Tchou-Wong, K.-M.; Rom, W.N. NF-kappaB in Lung Tumorigenesis. Cancers 2011, 3, 4258-4268.

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