Cancers 2011, 3(3), 3525-3556; doi:10.3390/cancers3033525
Review

Epigenetics, Nervous System Tumors, and Cancer Stem Cells

1,2,3,6email and 1,2,3,4,5,6,* email
1 Rosyln and Leslie Goldstein Laboratory for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, NY 10461, USA, 2 Institute for Brain Disorders and Neural Regeneration, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, NY 10461, USA 3 Department of Neurology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, NY 10461, USA 4 Department of Neuroscience, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, NY 10461, USA 5 Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, NY 10461, USA 6 Rose F. Kennedy Center for Research on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, NY 10461, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 June 2011; in revised form: 1 August 2011 / Accepted: 8 September 2011 / Published: 13 September 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer Stem Cells)
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Abstract: Recent advances have begun to elucidate how epigenetic regulatory mechanisms are responsible for establishing and maintaining cell identity during development and adult life and how the disruption of these processes is, not surprisingly, one of the hallmarks of cancer. In this review, we describe the major epigenetic mechanisms (i.e., DNA methylation, histone and chromatin modification, non-coding RNA deployment, RNA editing, and nuclear reorganization) and discuss the broad spectrum of epigenetic alterations that have been uncovered in pediatric and adult nervous system tumors. We also highlight emerging evidence that suggests epigenetic deregulation is a characteristic feature of so-called cancer stem cells (CSCs), which are thought to be present in a range of nervous system tumors and responsible for tumor maintenance, progression, treatment resistance, and recurrence. We believe that better understanding how epigenetic mechanisms operate in neural cells and identifying the etiologies and consequences of epigenetic deregulation in tumor cells and CSCs, in particular, are likely to promote the development of enhanced molecular diagnostics and more targeted and effective therapeutic agents for treating recalcitrant nervous system tumors.
Keywords: cancer; cancer stem cell; nervous system tumor; chromatin; CoREST; epigenetic; glioblastoma multiforme; non-coding RNA; REST

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MDPI and ACS Style

Qureshi, I.A.; Mehler, M.F. Epigenetics, Nervous System Tumors, and Cancer Stem Cells. Cancers 2011, 3, 3525-3556.

AMA Style

Qureshi IA, Mehler MF. Epigenetics, Nervous System Tumors, and Cancer Stem Cells. Cancers. 2011; 3(3):3525-3556.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Qureshi, Irfan A.; Mehler, Mark F. 2011. "Epigenetics, Nervous System Tumors, and Cancer Stem Cells." Cancers 3, no. 3: 3525-3556.

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