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Endoscopic Palliation for Pancreatic Cancer
Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of Virginia, PO Box 800708, Charlottesville, VA 22908, USA
Division of Medicine, University of Virginia, PO Box 800708, Charlottesville, VA 22908, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 March 2011; in revised form: 1 April 2011 / Accepted: 1 April 2011 / Published: 13 April 2011
Abstract: Pancreatic cancer is devastating due to its poor prognosis. Patients require a multidisciplinary approach to guide available options, mostly palliative because of advanced disease at presentation. Palliation including relief of biliary obstruction, gastric outlet obstruction, and cancer-related pain has become the focus in patients whose cancer is determined to be unresectable. Endoscopic stenting for biliary obstruction is an option for drainage to avoid the complications including jaundice, pruritus, infection, liver dysfunction and eventually failure. Enteral stents can relieve gastric obstruction and allow patients to resume oral intake. Pain is difficult to treat in cancer patients and endoscopic procedures such as pancreatic stenting and celiac plexus neurolysis can provide relief. The objective of endoscopic palliation is to primarily address symptoms as well improve quality of life.
Keywords: pancreatic adenocarcinoma; biliary obstruction; gastric outlet obstruction; endoscopy; stents; palliation
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MDPI and ACS Style
Bakhru, M.; Tekola, B.; Kahaleh, M. Endoscopic Palliation for Pancreatic Cancer. Cancers 2011, 3, 1947-1956.
Bakhru M, Tekola B, Kahaleh M. Endoscopic Palliation for Pancreatic Cancer. Cancers. 2011; 3(2):1947-1956.
Bakhru, Mihir; Tekola, Bezawit; Kahaleh, Michel. 2011. "Endoscopic Palliation for Pancreatic Cancer." Cancers 3, no. 2: 1947-1956.