Next Article in Journal
Treatment of Pancreatic Cancer: What Can We Really Predict Today?
Next Article in Special Issue
Involvement of COUP-TFs in Cancer Progression
Previous Article in Journal
Palliative Interventional and Surgical Therapy for Unresectable Pancreatic Cancer
Cancers 2011, 3(1), 662-674; doi:10.3390/cancers3010662

Ras Isoprenylation and pAkt Inhibition by Zoledronic Acid and Fluvastatin Enhances Paclitaxel Activity in T24 Bladder Cancer Cells

1 Cancer Pharmacology and Therapeutics Laboratory, St George Hospital, Kogarah, NSW, Australia 2 St George Hospital Clinical School, University of New South Wales, New South Wales, Australia Current address: University of Western Sydney Medical School, Narellan Road, Campbelltown, NSW, 2560, Australia.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 December 2010 / Revised: 30 January 2011 / Accepted: 9 February 2011 / Published: 14 February 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer Signaling Pathways and Crosstalk)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [328 KB, uploaded 14 February 2011]   |   Browse Figures


Background: Bisphosphonates interfere with the mevalonate pathway and inhibit the prenylation of small GTP-binding proteins such as ras and rap. We hypothesized that zoledronic acid would synergistically inhibit T24 bladder cancer cell growth in combination with fluvastatin and paclitaxel. Methods: Increasing doses of fluvastatin, zoledronic acid, and paclitaxel were investigated as single agents and in combination, and synergistic interactions were evaluated by the Chou-Talalay method. Western blots were used to assess effects on signal transduction pathways. Results: Growth of T24 was significantly inhibited with IC50 values of 2.67 ± 0.61 mM for fluvastatin and 5.35 ± 1.35 mM for zoledronic acid after 72 hours treatment. Geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate and farnesyl pyrophosphate was able to block, in part, this inhibitory activity. The combinations of zoledronic acid and paclitaxel, zoledronic acid and fluvastatin, and fluvastatin and paclitaxel were all synergistic. Both fluvastatin and zoledronic acid inhibited Ras and Rap prenylation, and the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and AKT. The degree of inhibition of phosphorylation of these key signaling transduction pathways appears to closely correlate with their synergistic interactions. Conclusions: Zoledronic acid enhances fluvastatin and paclitaxel activity against T24 in a synergistic manner and this is mediated largely by inhibition of both the Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways via isoprenylation inhibition.
Keywords: synergy; taxanes; Ras; AKT; signaling synergy; taxanes; Ras; AKT; signaling
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Share & Cite This Article

Further Mendeley | CiteULike
Export to BibTeX |
MDPI and ACS Style

Li, S.; De Souza, P. Ras Isoprenylation and pAkt Inhibition by Zoledronic Acid and Fluvastatin Enhances Paclitaxel Activity in T24 Bladder Cancer Cells. Cancers 2011, 3, 662-674.

View more citation formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

For more information on the journal, click here


Cited By

[Return to top]
Cancers EISSN 2072-6694 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert