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Cancers 2011, 3(1), 568-581; doi:10.3390/cancers3010568

Cumulative Epigenetic Abnormalities in Host Genes with Viral and Microbial Infection during Initiation and Progression of Malignant Lymphoma/Leukemia

1
Department of Pathology, Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama University, 2-5-1 Shikata-cho, Okayama 700-8558, Japan
2
Department of Medical Technology, Graduate School of Health Science, Okayama University Medical School, 2-5-1 Shikata-cho, Okayama 700-8558, Japan
3
Department of Molecular Genetics, Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama University, 2-5-1 Shikata-cho, Okayama 700-8558, Japan
4
Department of Hematology, Imamura Bun-in Hospital, 11-23 Kamoike Shinnmachi, Kagoshima, 890-0064, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 December 2010 / Revised: 25 January 2011 / Accepted: 25 January 2011 / Published: 4 February 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epigenetics of Cancer Progression)
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Abstract

Although cancers have been thought to be predominantly driven by acquired genetic changes, it is becoming clear that microenvironment-mediated epigenetic alterations play important roles. Aberrant promoter hypermethylation is a prevalent phenomenon in human cancers as well as malignant lymphoma/leukemia. Tumor suppressor genes become frequent targets of aberrant hypermethylation in the course of gene-silencing due to the increased and deregulated DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs). The purpose of this article is to review the current status of knowledge about the contribution of cumulative epigenetic abnormalities of the host genes after microbial and virus infection to the crisis and progression of malignant lymphoma/leukemia. In addition, the relevance of this knowledge to malignant lymphoma/leukemia assessment, prevention and early detection will be discussed.
Keywords: epigenetics; methylation; lymphoma; leukemia; progression; HTLV-I; H Pylori epigenetics; methylation; lymphoma; leukemia; progression; HTLV-I; H Pylori
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Oka, T.; Sato, H.; Ouchida, M.; Utsunomiya, A.; Yoshino, T. Cumulative Epigenetic Abnormalities in Host Genes with Viral and Microbial Infection during Initiation and Progression of Malignant Lymphoma/Leukemia. Cancers 2011, 3, 568-581.

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