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Cancer Stem Cells and Pediatric Solid Tumors
Division of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35233, USA
Department of Surgery, Division of Neurosurgery, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35233, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 December 2011; in revised form: 11 January 2011 / Accepted: 13 January 2011 / Published: 14 January 2011
Abstract: Recently, a subpopulation of cells, termed tumor-initiating cells or tumor stem cells (TSC), has been identified in many different types of solid tumors. These TSC, which are typically more resistant to chemotherapy and radiation compared to other tumor cells, have properties similar to normal stem cells including multipotency and the ability to self-renew, proliferate, and maintain the neoplastic clone. Much of the research on TSC has focused on adult cancers. With considerable differences in tumor biology between adult and pediatric cancers, there may be significant differences in the presence, function and behavior of TSC in pediatric malignancies. We discuss what is currently known about pediatric solid TSC with specific focus on TSC markers, tumor microenvironment, signaling pathways, therapeutic resistance and potential future therapies to target pediatric TSC.
Keywords: cancer stem cells; pediatrics; CD133; cancer initiating cells, tumor stem cells; tumor initiating cells; cancer progenitor cells; tumor progenitor cells; children
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Friedman, G.K.; Yancey Gillespie, G. Cancer Stem Cells and Pediatric Solid Tumors. Cancers 2011, 3, 298-318.
Friedman GK, Yancey Gillespie G. Cancer Stem Cells and Pediatric Solid Tumors. Cancers. 2011; 3(1):298-318.
Friedman, Gregory K.; Yancey Gillespie, G. 2011. "Cancer Stem Cells and Pediatric Solid Tumors." Cancers 3, no. 1: 298-318.