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Cancers 2010, 2(2), 794-808; doi:10.3390/cancers2020794
Article

Cytokines and Growth Factors Expressed by Human Cutaneous Melanoma

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Received: 14 April 2010; in revised form: 4 May 2010 / Accepted: 5 May 2010 / Published: 7 May 2010
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Abstract: Cytokines and growth factors have biologic effects that could stimulate tumor growth, invasion and angiogenesis. The incidence of 24 factors was investigated in 25 cultured human melanoma cell lines and in 62 fixed tissues at different stages of the disease. Over 80% of the human melanoma cell lines expressed TGF-β, IL-8, IL-6, VEGF, PDGF-AA and OPN. Significantly higher TGF-β, IGF-1 and IL-15 were determined in primary lesions compared to distant metastases by immunohistochemistry. Illustrating the complexity of the milieu of the tumor microenvironment, some of these factors may have to be considered in targeted therapy.
Keywords: melanoma; cytokines; growth factors melanoma; cytokines; growth factors
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Elias, E.G.; Hasskamp, J.H.; Sharma, B.K. Cytokines and Growth Factors Expressed by Human Cutaneous Melanoma. Cancers 2010, 2, 794-808.

AMA Style

Elias EG, Hasskamp JH, Sharma BK. Cytokines and Growth Factors Expressed by Human Cutaneous Melanoma. Cancers. 2010; 2(2):794-808.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Elias, Elias G.; Hasskamp, Joanne H.; Sharma, Bhuvnesh K. 2010. "Cytokines and Growth Factors Expressed by Human Cutaneous Melanoma." Cancers 2, no. 2: 794-808.



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