Next Article in Journal
An Overview of Biomarkers and Molecular Signatures in HCC
Next Article in Special Issue
Surgery of Primary Melanomas
Previous Article in Journal / Special Issue
In Situ Conversion of Melanoma Lesions into Autologous Vaccine by Intratumoral Injections of α-gal Glycolipids
Cancers 2010, 2(2), 794-808; doi:10.3390/cancers2020794

Cytokines and Growth Factors Expressed by Human Cutaneous Melanoma

* ,
Maryland Melanoma Center, Weinberg Cancer Institute, Franklin Square Hospital Center, Baltimore, MD, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 April 2010 / Revised: 4 May 2010 / Accepted: 5 May 2010 / Published: 7 May 2010
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [601 KB, uploaded 7 May 2010]   |  


Cytokines and growth factors have biologic effects that could stimulate tumor growth, invasion and angiogenesis. The incidence of 24 factors was investigated in 25 cultured human melanoma cell lines and in 62 fixed tissues at different stages of the disease. Over 80% of the human melanoma cell lines expressed TGF-β, IL-8, IL-6, VEGF, PDGF-AA and OPN. Significantly higher TGF-β, IGF-1 and IL-15 were determined in primary lesions compared to distant metastases by immunohistochemistry. Illustrating the complexity of the milieu of the tumor microenvironment, some of these factors may have to be considered in targeted therapy.
Keywords: melanoma; cytokines; growth factors melanoma; cytokines; growth factors
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Share & Cite This Article

Further Mendeley | CiteULike
Export to BibTeX |
EndNote |
MDPI and ACS Style

Elias, E.G.; Hasskamp, J.H.; Sharma, B.K. Cytokines and Growth Factors Expressed by Human Cutaneous Melanoma. Cancers 2010, 2, 794-808.

View more citation formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

For more information on the journal, click here


[Return to top]
Cancers EISSN 2072-6694 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert