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Cancers 2010, 2(1), 51-67; doi:10.3390/cancers2010051

Nutrients and Risk of Colon Cancer

Evidence and Risk Assessment Division, Centre for Chronic Disease Prevention and Control, Public Health Agency of Canada, 785 Carling Avenue, AL: 6807B, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0K9 Canada
Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche “Mario Negri,” Via La Masa, 19-20156 Milan, Italy
Istituto di Statistica Medica e Biometria, Università degli Studi di Milano, Via Venezian, 1, 20133 Milan, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 December 2009 / Revised: 19 January 2010 / Accepted: 3 February 2010 / Published: 10 February 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epidemiologic Research and Cancer)
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Dietary fats are thought to be important in the etiology of colon cancer. However, the evidence linking them is inconclusive. Studies on dietary protein, cholesterol and carbohydrate and the risk of colon cancer are also inconsistent. This study examined the association between dietary intake of protein, fats, cholesterol and carbohydrates, and the risk of colon cancer. Mailed questionnaires were completed by 1731 individuals with histologically confirmed cases of colon cancer and 3097 population controls between 1994 and 1997 in seven Canadian provinces. Measurements included socio-economic status, lifestyle habits and diet. A 69-item food frequency questionnaire was used to provide data on eating habits from two years before the study. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed using unconditional logistic regression. The nutrients were categorized by quartiles based on the distributions among the controls. Intake of polyunsaturated fat, trans-fat and cholesterol were significantly associated with the risk of colon cancer; the ORs for the highest quartiles were 1.36 (95% CI, 1.02–1.80), 1.37 (95% CI, 1.10–1.71) and 1.42 (95% CI, 1.10–1.84), respectively. The association was stronger with proximal colon cancer (PCC). An increased risk was also observed with increasing intake of sucrose for both proximal and distal colon cancers; the ORs for the highest quartiles were 1.67 (95% CI, 1.22–2.29) for PCC and 1.58 (95% CI, 1.18–2.10) for distal colon cancer (DCC). An elevated risk of PCC was also found with increased lactose intake. Our findings provide evidence that a diet low in fat and sucrose could reduce the risk of various colon cancers.
Keywords: unconditional logistic regression; odds ratio; protein; fat; cholesterol; carbohydrate unconditional logistic regression; odds ratio; protein; fat; cholesterol; carbohydrate
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Hu, J.; La Vecchia, C.; Negri, E.; Mery, L. Nutrients and Risk of Colon Cancer. Cancers 2010, 2, 51-67.

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