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Cancer Biomarkers: Are We Ready for the Prime Time?
Institute of Cytology and Preventive Oncology, Division of Molecular Oncology, Noida, 201301, UP, India
Methods and Technologies Branch, Epidemiology and Genetics Research Program, Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, National Cancer Institute, National Institues of Health (NIH), 6130 Executive Blvd., Suite 5100, Bethesda, MD 20892-7324, USA
Present address: Lab Molecular Biology, NCI, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 February 2010; in revised form: 2 March 2010 / Accepted: 19 March 2010 / Published: 22 March 2010
Abstract: A biomarker is a characteristic that is objectively measured and evaluated as an indicator of normal biologic processes, pathogenic processes, or pharmacologic responses to a therapeutic intervention. In cancer, a biomarker refers to a substance or process that is indicative of the presence of cancer in the body. A biomarker might be either a molecule secreted by a tumor or it can be a specific response of the body to the presence of cancer. Genetic, epigenetic, proteomic, glycomic, and imaging biomarkers can be used for cancer diagnosis, prognosis and epidemiology. These markers can be assayed in non-invasively collected biofluids. However, few cancer biomarkers are highly sensitive and specific for cancer detection at the present time. Consequently, biomarkers are not yet ready for routine use due to challenges in their clinical validation for early disease detection, diagnosis and monitoring to improve long-term survival of patients.
Keywords: biomarker; cancer; diagnosis; glycans; prognosis; validation
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Mishra, A.; Verma, M. Cancer Biomarkers: Are We Ready for the Prime Time? Cancers 2010, 2, 190-208.
Mishra A, Verma M. Cancer Biomarkers: Are We Ready for the Prime Time? Cancers. 2010; 2(1):190-208.
Mishra, Alok; Verma, Mukesh. 2010. "Cancer Biomarkers: Are We Ready for the Prime Time?" Cancers 2, no. 1: 190-208.