Open AccessThis article is
- freely available
Thioredoxin and Cancer: A Role for Thioredoxin in all States of Tumor Oxygenation
School of Biomolecular and Physical Sciences, Griffith University, Nathan, QLD, 4111, Australia
Eskitis Institute for Cell and Molecular Therapies, Griffith University, Brisbane Innovation Park, Don Young road, Nathan, QLD 4111, Australia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 February 2010; in revised form: 23 March 2010 / Accepted: 24 March 2010 / Published: 25 March 2010
Abstract: Thioredoxin is a small redox-regulating protein, which plays crucial roles in maintaining cellular redox homeostasis and cell survival and is highly expressed in many cancers. The tumor environment is usually under either oxidative or hypoxic stress and both stresses are known up-regulators of thioredoxin expression. These environments exist in tumors because their abnormal vascular networks result in an unstable oxygen delivery. Therefore, the oxygenation patterns in human tumors are complex, leading to hypoxia/re-oxygenation cycling. During carcinogenesis, tumor cells often become more resistant to hypoxia or oxidative stress-induced cell death and most studies on tumor oxygenation have focused on these two tumor environments. However, recent investigations suggest that the hypoxic cycling occurring within tumors plays a larger role in the contribution to tumor cell survival than either oxidative stress or hypoxia alone. Thioredoxin is known to have important roles in both these cellular responses and several studies implicate thioredoxin as a contributor to cancer progression. However, only a few studies exist that investigate the regulation of thioredoxin in the hypoxic and cycling hypoxic response in cancers. This review focuses on the role of thioredoxin in the various states of tumor oxygenation.
Keywords: thioredoxin; tumor; hypoxia; oxidative stress; preconditioning; cycling hypoxia
Citations to this Article
Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Karlenius, T.C.; Tonissen, K.F. Thioredoxin and Cancer: A Role for Thioredoxin in all States of Tumor Oxygenation. Cancers 2010, 2, 209-232.
Karlenius TC, Tonissen KF. Thioredoxin and Cancer: A Role for Thioredoxin in all States of Tumor Oxygenation. Cancers. 2010; 2(2):209-232.
Karlenius, Therese Christina; Tonissen, Kathryn Fay. 2010. "Thioredoxin and Cancer: A Role for Thioredoxin in all States of Tumor Oxygenation." Cancers 2, no. 2: 209-232.