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Micromachines 2018, 9(9), 439; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi9090439

Nano and Microsensors for Mammalian Cell Studies

1
Mechanical Engineering Department, City College of New York, New York, NY 10031, USA
2
Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579, Japan
3
Mechanical Engineering, New York Institute of Technology, New York, NY 11568, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 June 2018 / Revised: 29 July 2018 / Accepted: 21 August 2018 / Published: 31 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomechanical Biosensors)
Full-Text   |   PDF [3853 KB, uploaded 31 August 2018]   |  

Abstract

This review presents several sensors with dimensions at the nano- and micro-scale used for biological applications. Two types of cantilever beams employed as highly sensitive temperature sensors with biological applications will be presented. One type of cantilever beam is fabricated from composite materials and is operated in the deflection mode. In order to achieve the high sensitivity required for detection of heat generated by a single mammalian cell, the cantilever beam temperature sensor presented in this review was microprocessed with a length at the microscale and a thickness in the nanoscale dimension. The second type of cantilever beam presented in this review was operated in the resonant frequency regime. The working principle of the vibrating cantilever beam temperature sensor is based on shifts in resonant frequency in response to temperature variations generated by mammalian cells. Besides the cantilever beam biosensors, two biosensors based on the electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) used to monitor mammalian cells attachment and viability will be presented in this review. These ECIS sensors have dimensions at the microscale, with the gold films used for electrodes having thickness at the nanoscale. These micro/nano biosensors and their mammalian cell applications presented in the review demonstrates the diversity of the biosensor technology and applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: cantilever beam; resonant frequency; impedance spectroscopy; electric cell-substrate impedance sensing cantilever beam; resonant frequency; impedance spectroscopy; electric cell-substrate impedance sensing
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Voiculescu, I.; Toda, M.; Inomata, N.; Ono, T.; Li, F. Nano and Microsensors for Mammalian Cell Studies. Micromachines 2018, 9, 439.

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