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Micromachines 2018, 9(2), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi9020059

Sinusoidal Microchannel with Descending Curves for Varicose Veins Implantation

1
Department of Physics, The University of Lahore, Lahore 54000, Pakistan
2
Department of Physics (Electronics), GC University, Lahore 54000, Pakistan
3
Department of Computer Engineering, The University of Lahore, Lahore 54000, Pakistan
4
Institute of Electronics, Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission, Dhaka 1349, Bangladesh
5
Department of Mechanical Engineering Technology (MCET), Higher Colleges of Technology (HCT), Ras al-Khaimah P.O. Box 4793, UAE
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 October 2017 / Revised: 22 January 2018 / Accepted: 25 January 2018 / Published: 31 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medical Microdevices and Micromachines)
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Abstract

Approximately 26% of adult people, mostly females, are affected by varicose veins in old age. It is a common reason for distress, loss of efficiency, and worsening living conditions. Several traditional treatment techniques (sclerotherapy and foam sclerotherapy of large veins, laser surgeries and radiofrequency ablation, vein ligation and stripping, ambulatory phlebectomy, and endoscopic vein surgery) have failed to handle this disease effectively. Herein, authors have presented an alternative varicose vein implant method—the descending sinusoidal microchannel (DSMC). DSMC was simulated by Fuzzy logic MATLAB (The MathWorks, Natick, MA, USA) and ANSYS (ANSYS 18.2, perpetual license purchased by Ibadat Education Trust, The University of Lahore, Pakistan) with real and actual conditions. After simulations of DSMC, fabrication and testing were performed. The silver DSMC was manufactured by utilizing a micromachining procedure. The length, width, and depth of the silver substrate were 51 mm, 25 mm, and 1.1 mm, respectively. The measurements of the DSMC channel in the silver wafer substrate were 0.9 mm in width and 0.9 mm in depth. The three descending curves of the DSMC were 7 mm, 6 mm, and 5 mm in height. For pressure, actual conditions were carefully taken as 1.0 kPa to 1.5 kPa for varicose veins. For velocity, actual conditions were carefully taken as 0.02 m/s to 0.07 m/s for these veins. These are real and standard values used in simulations and experiments. At Reynolds number 323, the flow rate and velocity were determined as 1001.0 (0.1 nL/s), 11.4 cm/s and 1015.3 (0.1 nL/s), 12.19 cm/s by MATLAB (The MathWorks, Natick, MA, USA) and ANSYS simulations, respectively. The flow rate and velocity were determined to be 995.3 (0.1 nL/s) and 12.2 cm/s, respectively, at the same Reynolds number (323) in the experiment. Moreover, the Dean number was also calculated to observe Dean vortices. All simulated and experimental results were in close agreement. Consequently, DSMC can be implanted in varicose veins as a new treatment to preserve excellent blood flow in human legs from the original place to avoid tissue damage and other problems. View Full-Text
Keywords: descending sinusoidal microchannel (DSMC); varicose vein; fuzzy logic; ANSYS; biomedical microdevice; tissue damage descending sinusoidal microchannel (DSMC); varicose vein; fuzzy logic; ANSYS; biomedical microdevice; tissue damage
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Afzal, M.J.; Ashraf, M.W.; Tayyaba, S.; Hossain, M.K.; Afzulpurkar, N. Sinusoidal Microchannel with Descending Curves for Varicose Veins Implantation. Micromachines 2018, 9, 59.

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