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Micromachines 2015, 6(2), 239-251; doi:10.3390/mi6020239

Microfluidic Vortex Enhancement for on-Chip Sample Preparation

1
Institute of Sensor and Actuator Systems, Vienna University of Technology, Gusshausstrasse 27-29/E366, 1040 Vienna, Austria
2
Core Facility Flow Cytometry & Department of Surgery, Research Laboratories, Center of Translational Research, Medical University of Vienna, Lazarettgasse 14, 1090 Vienna, Austria
3
Institute of Microsensors, -Actuators and -Systems (IMSAS) & Microsystems Center Bremen (MCB), University of Bremen, Otto-Hahn-Allee 1, 28359 Bremen, Germany
4
Health and Environment Department, Austrian Institute of Technology, Muthgasse 11, 1190 Vienna, Austria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Joost Lötters
Received: 2 December 2014 / Accepted: 30 January 2015 / Published: 6 February 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomedical Microdevices)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [953 KB, uploaded 6 February 2015]   |  

Abstract

In the past decade a large amount of analysis techniques have been scaled down to the microfluidic level. However, in many cases the necessary sample preparation, such as separation, mixing and concentration, remains to be performed off-chip. This represents a major hurdle for the introduction of miniaturized sample-in/answer-out systems, preventing the exploitation of microfluidic’s potential for small, rapid and accurate diagnostic products. New flow engineering methods are required to address this hitherto insufficiently studied aspect. One microfluidic tool that can be used to miniaturize and integrate sample preparation procedures are microvortices. They have been successfully applied as microcentrifuges, mixers, particle separators, to name but a few. In this work, we utilize a novel corner structure at a sudden channel expansion of a microfluidic chip to enhance the formation of a microvortex. For a maximum area of the microvortex, both chip geometry and corner structure were optimized with a computational fluid dynamic (CFD) model. Fluorescent particle trace measurements with the optimized design prove that the corner structure increases the size of the vortex. Furthermore, vortices are induced by the corner structure at low flow rates while no recirculation is observed without a corner structure. Finally, successful separation of plasma from human blood was accomplished, demonstrating a potential application for clinical sample preparation. The extracted plasma was characterized by a flow cytometer and compared to plasma obtained from a standard benchtop centrifuge and from chips without a corner structure. View Full-Text
Keywords: microfluidic sample preparation; microvortex enhancement; on-chip human blood plasma separation microfluidic sample preparation; microvortex enhancement; on-chip human blood plasma separation
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Haller, A.; Spittler, A.; Brandhoff, L.; Zirath, H.; Puchberger-Enengl, D.; Keplinger, F.; Vellekoop, M.J. Microfluidic Vortex Enhancement for on-Chip Sample Preparation. Micromachines 2015, 6, 239-251.

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