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Micromachines 2014, 5(4), 839-858; doi:10.3390/mi5040839

3D Microporous Scaffolds Manufactured via Combination of Fused Filament Fabrication and Direct Laser Writing Ablation

1
Laser Research Center, Department of Quantum Electronics, Faculty of Physics, Vilnius University, Saulėtekio Ave. 10, LT-10223 Vilnius, Lithuania
2
Department of Biological Models, Institute of Biochemistry, Vilnius University, Mokslininku˛ Str. 12, LT-08662 Vilnius, Lithuania
3
Institute of Odontology, Faculty of Medicine, Vilnius University, Žalgirio Str. 115, LT-08217 Vilnius, Lithuania
4
Center for Micro-Photonics, Faculty of Science, Engineering and Technology, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, VIC 3122, Australia
5
Department of Semiconductor Physics, Vilnius University, Saulėtekio Ave. 10, LT-10223 Vilnius, Lithuania
6
Melbourne Center for Nanofabrication, Australian National Fabrication Facility, 151 Wellington Road, Clayton, VIC 3168, Australia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 July 2014 / Revised: 24 September 2014 / Accepted: 25 September 2014 / Published: 30 September 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser Micro- and Nano- Processing)
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Abstract

A 3D printing fused filament fabrication (FFF) approach has been implemented for the creation of microstructures having an internal 3D microstructure geometry. These objects were produced without any sacrificial structures or additional support materials, just by precisely tuning the nozzle heating, fan cooling and translation velocity parameters. The manufactured microporous structures out of polylactic acid (PLA) had fully controllable porosity (20%–60%) and consisted of desired volume pores (~0.056 μm3). The prepared scaffolds showed biocompatibility and were suitable for the primary stem cell growth. In addition, direct laser writing (DLW) ablation was employed to modify the surfaces of the PLA structures, drill holes, as well as shape the outer geometries of the created objects. The proposed combination of FFF printing with DLW offers successful fabrication of 3D microporous structures with functionalization capabilities, such as the modification of surfaces, the generation of grooves and microholes and cutting out precisely shaped structures (micro-arrows, micro-gears). The produced structures could serve as biomedical templates for cell culturing, as well as biodegradable implants for tissue engineering. The additional micro-architecture is important in connection with the cell types used for the intention of cell growing. Moreover, we show that surface roughness can be modified at the nanoscale by immersion into an acetone bath, thus increasing the hydrophilicity. The approach is not limited to biomedical applications, it could be employed for the manufacturing of bioresorbable 3D microfluidic and micromechanic structures. View Full-Text
Keywords: 3D printing; fused filament fabrication; femtosecond laser; direct laser writing; light filament; polylactic acid; biocompatible; 3D scaffold; stem cells; tissue engineering 3D printing; fused filament fabrication; femtosecond laser; direct laser writing; light filament; polylactic acid; biocompatible; 3D scaffold; stem cells; tissue engineering
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Malinauskas, M.; Rekštytė, S.; Lukoševičius, L.; Butkus, S.; Balčiūnas, E.; Pečiukaitytė, M.; Baltriukienė, D.; Bukelskienė, V.; Butkevičius, A.; Kucevičius, P.; Rutkūnas, V.; Juodkazis, S. 3D Microporous Scaffolds Manufactured via Combination of Fused Filament Fabrication and Direct Laser Writing Ablation. Micromachines 2014, 5, 839-858.

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