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Micromachines 2013, 4(2), 138-148; doi:10.3390/mi4020138
Article

Pushing the Limits of Electrical Detection of Ultralow Flows in Nanofluidic Channels

 and *
MESA+ Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, PO Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede, The Netherlands
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 December 2012 / Revised: 30 January 2013 / Accepted: 20 March 2013 / Published: 2 April 2013
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Abstract

This paper presents improvements in flow detection by electrical cross-correlation spectroscopy. This new technique detects molecular number fluctuations of electrochemically active analyte molecules as they are transported by liquid flow through a nanochannel. The fluctuations are used as a marker of liquid flow as their time of flight in between two consecutive transducers is determined, thereby allowing for the measurement of liquid flow rates in the picoliter-per-minute regime. Here we show an enhanced record-low sensitivity below 1 pL/min by capitalizing on improved electrical instrumentation, an optimized sensor geometry and a smaller channel cross section. We further discuss the impact of sensor geometry on the cross-correlation functions.
Keywords: flow detection; electrochemical sensor; nanofluidics; cross-correlation; nanochannel; redox cycling flow detection; electrochemical sensor; nanofluidics; cross-correlation; nanochannel; redox cycling
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Mathwig, K.; Lemay, S.G. Pushing the Limits of Electrical Detection of Ultralow Flows in Nanofluidic Channels. Micromachines 2013, 4, 138-148.

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