Deoxynivalenol Biomarkers in the Urine of UK Vegetarians
AbstractDeoxynivalenol (DON) is produced by Fusarium graminearum and is one of the most commonly occurring trichothecenes. Vegetarians are alleged to be a high-risk group for DON exposure due to high intakes of cereals susceptible to the growth of the mycotoxin. This study provides the levels of DON and de-epoxi Deoxynivalenol (DOM-1) in urine analysed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) in UK vegetarians. Over two consecutive days, morning urine samples were collected from 32 vegetarians and 31 UK adult volunteers, and associated food consumption 24 h prior to the sample was recorded. Statistically significant differences between the weight of the UK adults and vegetarians (t = 3.15. df = 61, p ≤ 0.005 two-tailed) were observed. The mean levels of DON in urine for adults on day 1 was 3.05 ng free DON/mg creatinine, and on day 2 was 2.98 ng free DON/mg creatinine. Even though high mean levels were observed, most adults were within the tolerable daily intake. However, for vegetarians, the mean level of urinary DON on day 1 was 6.69 ng free DON/mg creatinine, and on day 2 was 3.42 ng free DON/mg creatinine. These levels equate to up to 32% of vegetarians exceeding recommended tolerable daily intakes (TDI) of exposure (1 µg/kg b.w./day). View Full-Text
Share & Cite This Article
Wells, L.; Hardie, L.; Williams, C.; White, K.; Liu, Y.; De Santis, B.; Debegnach, F.; Moretti, G.; Greetham, S.; Brera, C.; Papageorgiou, M.; Thatcher, N.J.; Rigby, A.; Atkin, S.L.; Sathyapalan, T. Deoxynivalenol Biomarkers in the Urine of UK Vegetarians. Toxins 2017, 9, 196.
Wells L, Hardie L, Williams C, White K, Liu Y, De Santis B, Debegnach F, Moretti G, Greetham S, Brera C, Papageorgiou M, Thatcher NJ, Rigby A, Atkin SL, Sathyapalan T. Deoxynivalenol Biomarkers in the Urine of UK Vegetarians. Toxins. 2017; 9(7):196.Chicago/Turabian Style
Wells, Liz; Hardie, Laura; Williams, Courtney; White, Kay; Liu, Yunru; De Santis, Barbara; Debegnach, Francesca; Moretti, Georgio; Greetham, Stephanie; Brera, Carlo; Papageorgiou, Maria; Thatcher, Natalie J.; Rigby, Alan; Atkin, Stephen L.; Sathyapalan, Thozhukat. 2017. "Deoxynivalenol Biomarkers in the Urine of UK Vegetarians." Toxins 9, no. 7: 196.
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.