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Toxins 2017, 9(7), 196; doi:10.3390/toxins9070196

Deoxynivalenol Biomarkers in the Urine of UK Vegetarians

1
Department of Academic Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Brocklehurst Building, Hull Royal Infirmary, Anlaby Road, Hull HU3 2RW, UK
2
Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, LICAMM, School of Medicine, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK
3
Department of Environmental Medicine, Hainan Medical University, 3 Xueyuan Road, Haikou 571199, China
4
Department of Veterinary Public Health and Food Safety, GMO and Mycotoxins Unit, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Viale Regina Elena, 299,001,61 Rome, Italy
5
Department of Statistical Sciences, Piazzale Aldo Moro, Università degli studi di Roma “La Sapienza”, 500,185 Roma, Italy
6
Echuca Regional Health, Service Street, Echuca 3564, Australia
7
European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), 43126 Parma, Italy
8
Centre for Cardiovascular and Metabolic Research, Hull York Medical School, Hertford Building, University of Hull, Hull HU6 7RX, UK
9
Weill Cornell Medicine in Qatar, Education City, P.O. Box 24144, Qatar
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Chiara Dall’Asta
Received: 18 May 2017 / Revised: 13 June 2017 / Accepted: 14 June 2017 / Published: 22 June 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of Human Metabolism on the Toxicological Effects of Mycotoxins)
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Abstract

Deoxynivalenol (DON) is produced by Fusarium graminearum and is one of the most commonly occurring trichothecenes. Vegetarians are alleged to be a high-risk group for DON exposure due to high intakes of cereals susceptible to the growth of the mycotoxin. This study provides the levels of DON and de-epoxi Deoxynivalenol (DOM-1) in urine analysed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) in UK vegetarians. Over two consecutive days, morning urine samples were collected from 32 vegetarians and 31 UK adult volunteers, and associated food consumption 24 h prior to the sample was recorded. Statistically significant differences between the weight of the UK adults and vegetarians (t = 3.15. df = 61, p ≤ 0.005 two-tailed) were observed. The mean levels of DON in urine for adults on day 1 was 3.05 ng free DON/mg creatinine, and on day 2 was 2.98 ng free DON/mg creatinine. Even though high mean levels were observed, most adults were within the tolerable daily intake. However, for vegetarians, the mean level of urinary DON on day 1 was 6.69 ng free DON/mg creatinine, and on day 2 was 3.42 ng free DON/mg creatinine. These levels equate to up to 32% of vegetarians exceeding recommended tolerable daily intakes (TDI) of exposure (1 µg/kg b.w./day). View Full-Text
Keywords: mycotoxins; deoxynivalenol; vegetarians; vomitoxin mycotoxins; deoxynivalenol; vegetarians; vomitoxin
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MDPI and ACS Style

Wells, L.; Hardie, L.; Williams, C.; White, K.; Liu, Y.; De Santis, B.; Debegnach, F.; Moretti, G.; Greetham, S.; Brera, C.; Papageorgiou, M.; Thatcher, N.J.; Rigby, A.; Atkin, S.L.; Sathyapalan, T. Deoxynivalenol Biomarkers in the Urine of UK Vegetarians. Toxins 2017, 9, 196.

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