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Toxins 2017, 9(7), 197; doi:10.3390/toxins9070197

Impact of Mycotoxins Secreted by Aspergillus Molds on the Inflammatory Response of Human Corneal Epithelial Cells

1
Environmental Epidemiology Unit, Paris-Descartes University, Sorbonne Paris Cité, EA 4064, 75006 Paris, France
2
Viral Neuroimmunology Unit, Pasteur Institute, 75015 Paris, France
3
Laboratory of Biochemistry, Bichat University Hospital, AP-HP, 75018 Paris, France
4
Laboratory of Parasitology-Mycology, Saint-Louis University Hospital, AP-HP and Paris-Diderot University, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 75010 Paris, France
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Shohei Sakuda
Received: 30 March 2017 / Revised: 17 June 2017 / Accepted: 19 June 2017 / Published: 22 June 2017
(This article belongs to the Collection Aflatoxins)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1707 KB, uploaded 22 June 2017]   |  

Abstract

Exposure to molds and mycotoxins not only contributes to the onset of respiratory disease, it also affects the ocular surface. Very few published studies concern the evaluation of the effect of mycotoxin exposure on ocular cells. The present study investigates the effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and gliotoxin, two mycotoxins secreted by Aspergillus molds, on the biological activity of the human corneal epithelial (HCE) cells. After 24, 48, and 72 h of exposure, cellular viability and inflammatory response were assessed. Both endpoint cell viability colorimetric assays and continuous cell impedance measurements, providing noninvasive real-time assessment of the effect on cells, were performed. Cytokine gene expression and interleukin-8 release were quantified. Gliotoxin appeared more cytotoxic than AFB1 but, at the same time, led to a lower increase of the inflammatory response reflecting its immunosuppressive properties. Real-time cell impedance measurement showed a distinct profile of cytotoxicity for both mycotoxins. HCE cells appeared to be a well-suited in vitro model to study ocular surface reactivity following biological contaminant exposure. Low, but persistent inflammation, caused by environmental factors, such as fungal toxins, leads to irritation and sensitization, and could be responsible for allergic manifestations which, in turn, could lead to mucosal hyper-reactivity. View Full-Text
Keywords: mycotoxin; aflatoxin B1; gliotoxin; in vitro; ocular surface; inflammatory response; cellular impedance mycotoxin; aflatoxin B1; gliotoxin; in vitro; ocular surface; inflammatory response; cellular impedance
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Bossou, Y.M.; Serssar, Y.; Allou, A.; Vitry, S.; Momas, I.; Seta, N.; Menotti, J.; Achard, S. Impact of Mycotoxins Secreted by Aspergillus Molds on the Inflammatory Response of Human Corneal Epithelial Cells. Toxins 2017, 9, 197.

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