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Toxins 2017, 9(7), 201; doi:10.3390/toxins9070201

Regional Variations in the Risk and Severity of Ciguatera Caused by Eating Moray Eels

1
Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong, China
2
Centre for Food and Drug Safety, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
Academic Editor: Jose M. Eirin-Lopez
Received: 6 June 2017 / Revised: 21 June 2017 / Accepted: 22 June 2017 / Published: 26 June 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Marine and Freshwater Toxins)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [256 KB, uploaded 28 June 2017]

Abstract

Moray eels (Gymnothorax species) from tropical waters have long been known to be high-risk species, and the consumption of particularly the viscera or ungutted eels can result in severe ciguatera (known as Gymnothorax or moray eel poisoning), characterized by prominent neurological features. In this review, the main objective was to describe the risk and severity of ciguatera caused by eating moray eels in different parts of the world. Moray eels can accumulate very high ciguatoxin (CTX) levels in the flesh and particularly the liver. Therefore, even the smaller ones can be toxic and the consumption of an average portion (particularly liver) can result in severe or fatal ciguatera. Moray eels (particularly when ungutted) must never be served in gatherings since they can cause mass poisoning because of their large sizes and high CTX levels. Apart from regulatory measures restricting or excluding access, the public should be repeatedly warned to avoid eating moray eels. View Full-Text
Keywords: ciguatera; ciguatoxins; moray eels; Gymnothorax species ciguatera; ciguatoxins; moray eels; Gymnothorax species
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Chan, T.Y.K. Regional Variations in the Risk and Severity of Ciguatera Caused by Eating Moray Eels. Toxins 2017, 9, 201.

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