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Toxins 2017, 9(6), 178; doi:10.3390/toxins9060178

Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) Spectroscopy in Studies of the Protective Effects of 24-Epibrasinoide and Selenium against Zearalenone-Stimulation of the Oxidative Stress in Germinating Grains of Wheat

1
Polish Academy of Sciences, The Franciszek Górski Institute of Plant Physiology, Niezapominajek 21, 30-239 Cracow, Poland
2
Faculty of Chemistry, Jagiellonian University, Ingardena 3, 30-060 Cracow, Poland
3
Institute of Biology, Pedagogical University, Podchorążych 2, 30-084 Cracow, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Annie Pfohl-Leszkowicz
Received: 28 April 2017 / Revised: 23 May 2017 / Accepted: 24 May 2017 / Published: 27 May 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Mycotoxins)
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Abstract

These studies concentrate on the possibility of using selenium ions and/or 24-epibrassinolide at non-toxic levels as protectors of wheat plants against zearalenone, which is a common and widespread mycotoxin. Analysis using the UHPLC-MS technique allowed for identification of grains having the stress-tolerant and stress-sensitive wheat genotype. When germinating in the presence of 30 µM of zearalenone, this mycotoxin can accumulate in both grains and hypocotyls germinating from these grains. Selenium ions (10 µM) and 24-epibrassinolide (0.1 µM) introduced together with zearalenone decreased the uptake of zearalenone from about 295 to 200 ng/g and from about 350 to 300 ng/g in the grains of tolerant and sensitive genotypes, respectively. As a consequence, this also resulted in a reduction in the uptake of zearalenone from about 100 to 80 ng/g and from about 155 to 128 ng/g in the hypocotyls from the germinated grains of tolerant and sensitive wheat, respectively. In the mechanism of protection against the zearalenone-induced oxidative stress, the antioxidative enzymes—mainly superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT)—were engaged, especially in the sensitive genotype. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies allowed for a description of the chemical character of the long-lived organic radicals formed in biomolecular structures which are able to stabilize electrons released from reactive oxygen species as well as the changes in the status of transition paramagnetic metal ions. The presence of zearalenone drastically decreased the amount of paramagnetic metal ions—mainly Mn(II) and Fe(III)—bonded in the organic matrix. This effect was particularly found in the sensitive genotype, in which these species were found at a smaller level. The protective effect of selenium ions and 24-epibrassinolide originated from their ability to inhibit the destruction of biomolecules by reactive oxygen species. An increased ability to defend biomolecules against zearalenone action was observed for 24-epibrassinolide. View Full-Text
Keywords: zearalenone; oxidative stress; detoxification; brassinosteroids; selenium; wheat; EPR zearalenone; oxidative stress; detoxification; brassinosteroids; selenium; wheat; EPR
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Filek, M.; Łabanowska, M.; Kurdziel, M.; Sieprawska, A. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) Spectroscopy in Studies of the Protective Effects of 24-Epibrasinoide and Selenium against Zearalenone-Stimulation of the Oxidative Stress in Germinating Grains of Wheat. Toxins 2017, 9, 178.

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