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Toxins 2017, 9(6), 177; doi:10.3390/toxins9060177

Influence of Cooking (Microwaving and Broiling) on Cylindrospermopsin Concentration in Muscle of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and Characterization of Decomposition Products

1
Area of Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Sevilla, C/Profesor García González 2, 41012 Sevilla, Spain
2
Mass spectrometry Facility, Centro de Investigación Tecnológica e Investigación (CITIUS), University of Sevilla, 41012 Sevilla, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 April 2017 / Revised: 18 May 2017 / Accepted: 24 May 2017 / Published: 26 May 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Marine and Freshwater Toxins)
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Abstract

Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) has become increasingly important as a freshwater algal toxin, showing cytotoxic effects. This toxin is able to bioaccumulate in freshwater food webs, representing a serious human health problem. Normally, fish is cooked before consumption, and CYN concentration can be altered. For the first time, the effects of microwaving and broiling for 1 and 2 min on CYN concentration and its decomposition products in fish muscle (Oreochromis niloticus) contaminated in the laboratory were investigated, using UPLC-MS/MS and Orbitrap. The results show that cooking the fish reduced unconjugated CYN levels by 11, 10 and 15% after microwaving for 1 and 2 min, and broiling for 2 min, respectively, compared to control fish. Different CYN decomposition products with m/z 416.1234 (7-epi-CYN) and m/z 336.16663 (diasteroisomers C-3A, C-3C, C-3D, C-3E, C-3F) are generated in fish samples submitted to cooking. Based on the relative abundance of the decomposition products, the possible degradation pathways taking place by microwaving may be through the formation of 7-epi-CYN and m/z 336.16663 compounds, whereas in the case of broiling the last route is the only one observed in this study. The influence of cooking and the toxicity characterization of the degradation products generated in CYN-contaminated fish are of importance for more realistic risk evaluation related to their consumption. View Full-Text
Keywords: cylindrospermopsin; Nile tilapia; microwaving; broiling; decomposition products cylindrospermopsin; Nile tilapia; microwaving; broiling; decomposition products
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Prieto, A.I.; Guzmán-Guillén, R.; Valderrama-Fernández, R.; Jos, Á.; Cameán, A.M. Influence of Cooking (Microwaving and Broiling) on Cylindrospermopsin Concentration in Muscle of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and Characterization of Decomposition Products. Toxins 2017, 9, 177.

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