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Toxins 2017, 9(4), 146; doi:10.3390/toxins9040146

Initial Spore Density Has an Influence on Ochratoxin A Content in Aspergillus ochraceus CGMCC 3.4412 in PDB and Its Interaction with Seeds

1
Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Food Nutrition and Human Health, College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083, China
2
The Supervision, Inspection and Testing Center of Genetically Modified Organisms, Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing 100083, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Richard A. Manderville
Received: 8 June 2016 / Revised: 9 January 2017 / Accepted: 7 February 2017 / Published: 21 April 2017
(This article belongs to the Collection Ochratoxins-Collection)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1952 KB, uploaded 21 April 2017]   |  

Abstract

The morphology and secondary metabolism of Aspergillus spp. are associated with initial spore density (ISD). Fatty acids (FA) are involved in the biosynthesis of aflatoxins (AF) through Aspergillus quorum sensing (QS). Here, we studied how ochratoxin A (OTA) was regulated by spore density in Aspergillus ochraceus CGMCC 3.4412. The results contribute to understanding the role of spore density in morphogenesis, OTA biosynthesis, and host–pathogen interactions. When A. ochraceus was grown in Potato Dextrose Broth (PDB) media at different spore densities (from 101 to 106 spores/mL), more OTA was produced when ISD were increased, but a higher level of ISD inhibited OTA biosynthesis. Seed infection studies showed that peanuts (Arachis hypogaea) and soybeans (Glycine max) with high FA content were more susceptible to OTA production when infected by A. ochraceus and reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced OTA biosynthesis. These results suggested that FA was vital for OTA biosynthesis, and that oxidative stress was closely related to OTA biosynthesis in A. ochraceus. View Full-Text
Keywords: quorum sensing; density effect; Ochratoxin A; fatty acids; oxidative stress quorum sensing; density effect; Ochratoxin A; fatty acids; oxidative stress
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Li, C.; Song, Y.; Xiong, L.; Huang, K.; Liang, Z. Initial Spore Density Has an Influence on Ochratoxin A Content in Aspergillus ochraceus CGMCC 3.4412 in PDB and Its Interaction with Seeds. Toxins 2017, 9, 146.

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