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Toxins 2017, 9(3), 88; doi:10.3390/toxins9030088

Effects of pH and Temperature on the Stability of Fumonisins in Maize Products

1
Department of Food Analysis, Prof. Waclaw Dabrowski Institute of Agricultural and Food Biotechnology, Rakowiecka 36, 02-532 Warsaw, Poland
2
Department of Chemistry, Poznan University of Life Sciences, Wojska Polskiego 75, 60-625 Poznan, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paola Battilani
Received: 10 January 2017 / Revised: 20 February 2017 / Accepted: 27 February 2017 / Published: 1 March 2017
(This article belongs to the Collection Understanding Mycotoxin Occurrence in Food and Feed Chains)
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Abstract

This paper is a study of the stability of fumonisins in dough based on maize flour prepared in a phosphate buffer with a pH of 3.5, 5.5 or 7.5 and baked at a temperature within the range of 100–250 °C. Buffers with various pH values were tested, since it is well-known that pH may significantly influence interactions of fumonisins with other substances. A standard analytical procedure was used to determine the concentration of free fumonisins. Hydrolysis in an alkaline medium was then applied to reveal the hidden forms, while the total fumonisins concentations was determined in another measurement. The total concentration of fumonisins was statistically higher in pH = 3.5 and pH = 5.5 than the concentration of free fumonisins; no similar difference was found at pH = 7.5. The applied phosphate buffer pH 7.5 may enhance solubility of fumonisins, which would increase extraction efficiency of free analytes, thereby decreasing the difference between concentrations of total and free fumonisins. Hydrolysed B1 fumonisin (HFB1) and partially hydrolysed B1 fumonisin (isomers a and b: PHFB1a and PHFB1b, respectively) were the main investigated substances. For baking temperatures below 220 °C, fumonisins were slightly more stable for pH = 5.5 than for pH = 3.5 and pH = 7.5. In both of these latter cases, the concentration of partially hydrolysed fumonisins grew initially (up to 200 °C) with an increase in the baking temperature, and then dropped. Similar behaviour was observed for free HFB1, which may suggest the following fumonisin degradation mechanism: initially, the tricarballylic acid (TCA) groups are removed from the molecules, and next, the HFB1 molecules disintegrate. View Full-Text
Keywords: fumonisins; conjugated fumonisins; LC-TOF-HRMS; maize products; stability of fumonisins; pH and temperature conditions fumonisins; conjugated fumonisins; LC-TOF-HRMS; maize products; stability of fumonisins; pH and temperature conditions
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Bryła, M.; Waśkiewicz, A.; Szymczyk, K.; Jędrzejczak, R. Effects of pH and Temperature on the Stability of Fumonisins in Maize Products. Toxins 2017, 9, 88.

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