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Toxins 2017, 9(2), 59; doi:10.3390/toxins9020059

Multi‐Mycotoxin Analysis in Durum Wheat Pasta by Liquid Chromatography Coupled to Quadrupole Orbitrap Mass Spectrometry

1
Laboratory of Food Chemistry and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Valencia, Av. Vicent Andrés Estellés s/n, 46100 Burjassot, València, Spain
2
Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Naples “Federico II”, Via Domenico Montesano 49, 80131 Napoli, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 December 2016 / Accepted: 4 February 2017 / Published: 9 February 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exposure and Risk Assessment for Mycotoxins)
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Abstract

A simple and rapid multi‐mycotoxin method for the determination of 17 mycotoxins simultaneously is described in the present survey on durum and soft wheat pasta samples. Mycotoxins included in the study were those mainly reported in cereal samples: ochratoxin‐A (OTA), aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), zearalenone (ZON), deoxynivalenol (DON), 3‐and 15‐acetyl‐deoxynivalenol (3‐AcDON and 15‐AcDON), nivalenol (NIV), neosolaniol (NEO), fusarenon‐X, (FUS‐X), T‐2 toxin (T‐2) and HT‐2 toxin (HT‐2), fumonisin B1 and B2 (FB1 and FB2), and four emerging mycotoxins: three enniatins (ENA, ENA1, and ENB), and beauvericin (BEA). Twenty‐nine samples were analyzed to provide an overview on mycotoxin presence: 27 samples of durum wheat pasta, and two samples of baby food. Analytical results concluded that trichothecenes showed the highest incidence, mainly DON, NIV, and HT‐2 toxin, followed by ZON and ENB, while NEO, FUS‐X, OTA, AFB1, and FUM were not detected in any sample. The highest contents corresponded to ENB and ranged from 91.15μg/kg to 710.90 μg/kg.
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Keywords: baby‐food; durum wheat pasta; multi‐residual method; HRMS‐orbitrap baby‐food; durum wheat pasta; multi‐residual method; HRMS‐orbitrap
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Tolosa, J.; Graziani, G.; Gaspari, A.; Chianese, D.; Ferrer, E.; Mañes, J.; Ritieni, A. Multi‐Mycotoxin Analysis in Durum Wheat Pasta by Liquid Chromatography Coupled to Quadrupole Orbitrap Mass Spectrometry. Toxins 2017, 9, 59.

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