Next Article in Journal
Early Activation of MAPK p44/42 Is Partially Involved in DON-Induced Disruption of the Intestinal Barrier Function and Tight Junction Network
Next Article in Special Issue
Abobotulinum Toxin A in the Treatment of Chronic Low Back Pain
Previous Article in Journal
A Tricky Trait: Applying the Fruits of the “Function Debate” in the Philosophy of Biology to the “Venom Debate” in the Science of Toxinology
Previous Article in Special Issue
Effects of OnabotulintoxinA on Habituation of Laser Evoked Responses in Chronic Migraine
Article Menu
Issue 9 (September) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Toxins 2016, 8(9), 265; doi:10.3390/toxins8090265

Effective Botulinum Toxin Injection Guide for Treatment of Temporal Headache

Division in Anatomy and Developmental Biology, Department of Oral Biology, Human Identification Research Institute, BK21 PLUS Project, Yonsei University College of Dentistry, Seoul 03722, South Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Bahman Jabbari
Received: 29 July 2016 / Revised: 31 August 2016 / Accepted: 5 September 2016 / Published: 8 September 2016
(This article belongs to the Collection Botulinum Toxins on Human Pain)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [8667 KB, uploaded 8 September 2016]   |  

Abstract

This study involved an extensive analysis of published research on the morphology of the temporalis muscle in order to provide an anatomical guideline on how to distinguish the temporalis muscle and temporalis tendon by observing the surface of the patient’s face. Twenty-one hemifaces of cadavers were used in this study. The temporalis muscles were dissected clearly for morphological analysis between the temporalis muscle and tendon. The posterior border of the temporalis tendon was classified into three types: in Type I the posterior border of the temporalis tendon is located in front of reference line L2 (4.8%, 1/21), in Type II it is located between reference lines L2 and L3 (85.7%, 18/21), and in Type III it is located between reference lines L3 and L4 (9.5%, 2/21). The vertical distances between the horizontal line passing through the jugale (LH) and the temporalis tendon along each of reference lines L0, L1, L2, L3, and L4 were 29.7 ± 6.8 mm, 45.0 ± 8.8 mm, 37.7 ± 11.1 mm, 42.5 ± 7.5 mm, and 32.1 ± 0.4 mm, respectively. BoNT-A should be injected into the temporalis muscle at least 45 mm vertically above the zygomatic arch. This will ensure that the muscle region is targeted and so produce the greatest clinical effect with the minimum concentration of BoNT-A. View Full-Text
Keywords: migraine; botulinum toxin type A; temporalis muscle; injection site; Sihler staining migraine; botulinum toxin type A; temporalis muscle; injection site; Sihler staining
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Choi, Y.-J.; Lee, W.-J.; Lee, H.-J.; Lee, K.-W.; Kim, H.-J.; Hu, K.-S. Effective Botulinum Toxin Injection Guide for Treatment of Temporal Headache. Toxins 2016, 8, 265.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Toxins EISSN 2072-6651 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top