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Toxins 2016, 8(9), 246; doi:10.3390/toxins8090246

Exposure Assessment of Infants to Aflatoxin M1 through Consumption of Breast Milk and Infant Powdered Milk in Brazil

1
Department of Pathological Sciences, State University of Londrina, P.O. Box 10.011, 86057-970 Londrina, Paraná, Brazil
2
Department of Food Science and Technology, State University of Londrina, P.O. Box 10.011, 86057-970 Londrina, Paraná, Brazil
3
Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, State University of Londrina, P.O. Box 10.011, 86057-970 Londrina, Paraná, Brazil
4
Food Hygiene Laboratory, Faculty of Agriculture, Kagawa University, 761-0795 Miki-cho, Kagawa, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Carlo Brera
Received: 7 July 2016 / Accepted: 15 August 2016 / Published: 31 August 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exposure and Risk Assessment for Mycotoxins)
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Abstract

Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is an important biomarker that can be used to evaluate aflatoxin exposure in both humans and animals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the exposure degree of infants to AFM1 through consumption of breast milk and infant powdered milk in Brazil. For this purpose, the estimated daily intake (EDI) for infants was calculated based on the AFM1 levels analyzed in 94 breast milk (BM) samples collected in Southern Brazil, and 16 infant powdered milk (IPM) samples commonly commercialized in Brazil. AFM1 was detected in 5.3% (n = 5) and 43.8% (n = 7) of BM and IPM samples, with mean levels of 0.003 ng/g and 0.011 ng/g, respectively. All the IPM samples showed AFM1 levels lower than those established by the Brazilian guidelines (5 ng/g), and in most of the samples (81.25%) levels were below the maximum limit tolerated by the European Commission (0.025 ng/g). The EDI of AFM1 for infants aged zero to 12 months old showed values from 0.018 to 0.069 ng/kg body weight/day for BM, and 0.078 to 0.306 ng/kg body weight/day for IPM. Hazard index (HI) values for BM and IPM were less than one, except for IPM intended for infants up to one month. In conclusion, the exposure of infants to AFM1 was low, but continuous monitoring of mycotoxin levels is essential to minimize infant health risk. View Full-Text
Keywords: exposure; mycotoxin; milk; infant; safety; carry-over exposure; mycotoxin; milk; infant; safety; carry-over
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Ishikawa, A.T.; Takabayashi-Yamashita, C.R.; Ono, E.Y.S.; Bagatin, A.K.; Rigobello, F.F.; Kawamura, O.; Hirooka, E.Y.; Itano, E.N. Exposure Assessment of Infants to Aflatoxin M1 through Consumption of Breast Milk and Infant Powdered Milk in Brazil. Toxins 2016, 8, 246.

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