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Toxins 2016, 8(8), 247; doi:10.3390/toxins8080247

Occurrence of Fusarium langsethiae and T-2 and HT-2 Toxins in Italian Malting Barley

1
Genomics Research Centre (CREA-GPG), Council for Agricultural Research and Economics, Via San Protaso 302, 29017 Fiorenzuola d’Arda (PC), Italy
2
Institute of Sciences of Food Production (ISPA), National Research Council of Italy (CNR), via G. Amendola 122/O, 70126 Bari, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Carlo Brera
Received: 18 July 2016 / Revised: 8 August 2016 / Accepted: 15 August 2016 / Published: 20 August 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exposure and Risk Assessment for Mycotoxins)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1006 KB, uploaded 20 August 2016]   |  

Abstract

T-2 and HT-2 toxins are two of the most toxic members of type-A trichothecenes, produced by a number of Fusarium species. The occurrence of these mycotoxins was studied in barley samples during a survey carried out in the 2011–2014 growing seasons in climatically different regions in Italy. The percentage of samples found positive ranges from 22% to 53%, with values included between 26 and 787 μg/kg. The percentage of samples with a T-2 and HT-2 content above the EU indicative levels for barley of 200 μg/kg ranges from 2% to 19.6% in the 2011–2014 period. The fungal species responsible for the production of these toxins in 100% of positive samples has been identified as Fusarium langsethiae, a well-known producer of T-2 and HT-2 toxins. A positive correlation between the amount of F. langsethiae DNA and of the sum of T-2 and HT-2 toxins was found. This is the first report on the occurrence of F. langsethiae—and of its toxic metabolites T-2 and HT-2—in malting barley grown in Italy. View Full-Text
Keywords: T-2 toxin; HT-2 toxin; Fusarium langsethiae; toxigenic fungi; Fusarium Head Blight; barley; monitoring T-2 toxin; HT-2 toxin; Fusarium langsethiae; toxigenic fungi; Fusarium Head Blight; barley; monitoring
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Morcia, C.; Tumino, G.; Ghizzoni, R.; Badeck, F.W.; Lattanzio, V.M.; Pascale, M.; Terzi, V. Occurrence of Fusarium langsethiae and T-2 and HT-2 Toxins in Italian Malting Barley. Toxins 2016, 8, 247.

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