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Toxins 2016, 8(9), 254; doi:10.3390/toxins8090254

A Novel Population of Fusarium fujikuroi Isolated from Southeastern U.S. Winegrapes Reveals the Need to Re-Evaluate the Species’ Fumonisin Production

1
Department of Plant Pathology, The University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA
2
U.S. National Poultry Research Center, R.B. Russell Research Center, USDA-ARS, Toxicology and Mycotoxin Research Unit, Athens, GA 30605, USA
1
Extension Fruit Disease Specialist. The University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Gerhard Adam
Received: 11 July 2016 / Accepted: 23 August 2016 / Published: 31 August 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Mycotoxins)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [767 KB, uploaded 31 August 2016]   |  

Abstract

Mycotoxins pose a challenge to a safe food supply worldwide, and their threat is expected to worsen with our changing climate. The need for diligence is exemplified by the discovery of fumonisin B2 in wine, which joins ochratoxin A as a mycotoxin of concern in the grape-wine chain. To elucidate the mycotoxin risk in southeastern American wine, grape samples were collected from vineyards during harvest in 2013 and potentially mycotoxigenic fungi (Fusarium and Aspergillus) were isolated from the samples. Numerous Fusarium isolates were recovered and identified to the species level by comparison of translation elongation factor 1-α gene sequences to verified strains. Fusarium fujikuroi was the most abundant species recovered (239 isolates), followed by F. proliferatum (52), F. incarnatum-equiseti (14), F. oxysporum (7), F. concentricum (1), and F. solani (1). In vitro assays quantified fumonisin production for representative isolates via liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Surprisingly, nearly all F. fujikuroi isolates produced fumonisins B1, B2, and B3 at levels comparable to both the F. proliferatum isolates and the positive control, Fusarium verticillioides. Such capacity for fumonisin production refutes the generally accepted notion that F. fujikuroi produces undetectable or low levels of fumonisins and provides evidence to reconsider this species as a mycotoxigenic threat to economically significant crops. View Full-Text
Keywords: fumonisin; Fusarium; Fusarium fujikuroi; grapes; ochratoxin A; Vitis vinifera; Fusarium proliferatum fumonisin; Fusarium; Fusarium fujikuroi; grapes; ochratoxin A; Vitis vinifera; Fusarium proliferatum
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Bolton, S.L.; Brannen, P.M.; Glenn, A.E. A Novel Population of Fusarium fujikuroi Isolated from Southeastern U.S. Winegrapes Reveals the Need to Re-Evaluate the Species’ Fumonisin Production. Toxins 2016, 8, 254.

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