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Toxins 2016, 8(8), 226; doi:10.3390/toxins8080226

Biotechnological Trends in Spider and Scorpion Antivenom Development

1
Department of Biotechnology and Biomedicine, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark
2
Department of Drug Design and Pharmacology, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, DK-2100 Copenhagen East, Denmark
3
Department of Bio and Health Informatics, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Nicholas R. Casewell
Received: 14 June 2016 / Revised: 19 June 2016 / Accepted: 13 July 2016 / Published: 23 July 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Venoms)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3053 KB, uploaded 23 July 2016]   |  

Abstract

Spiders and scorpions are notorious for their fearful dispositions and their ability to inject venom into prey and predators, causing symptoms such as necrosis, paralysis, and excruciating pain. Information on venom composition and the toxins present in these species is growing due to an interest in using bioactive toxins from spiders and scorpions for drug discovery purposes and for solving crystal structures of membrane-embedded receptors. Additionally, the identification and isolation of a myriad of spider and scorpion toxins has allowed research within next generation antivenoms to progress at an increasingly faster pace. In this review, the current knowledge of spider and scorpion venoms is presented, followed by a discussion of all published biotechnological efforts within development of spider and scorpion antitoxins based on small molecules, antibodies and fragments thereof, and next generation immunization strategies. The increasing number of discovery and development efforts within this field may point towards an upcoming transition from serum-based antivenoms towards therapeutic solutions based on modern biotechnology. View Full-Text
Keywords: antivenom; spider venom; scorpion venom; antitoxin; venom neutralization; venomics; antibodies; antivenom design antivenom; spider venom; scorpion venom; antitoxin; venom neutralization; venomics; antibodies; antivenom design
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Laustsen, A.H.; Solà, M.; Jappe, E.C.; Oscoz, S.; Lauridsen, L.P.; Engmark, M. Biotechnological Trends in Spider and Scorpion Antivenom Development. Toxins 2016, 8, 226.

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