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Toxins 2016, 8(7), 209; doi:10.3390/toxins8070209

Staphylococcus aureus Toxins and Diabetic Foot Ulcers: Role in Pathogenesis and Interest in Diagnosis

1
Institut National de la Santé Et de la Recherche Médicale U1047, Université de Montpellier, UFR de Médecine, Nîmes 30908, France
2
Service de Microbiologie, Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire Carémeau, Nîmes 30029, France
3
Service des Maladies Infectieuses et Tropicales, Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire Carémeau, Nîmes 30029, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Vernon L. Tesh
Received: 14 May 2016 / Revised: 29 June 2016 / Accepted: 1 July 2016 / Published: 7 July 2016
(This article belongs to the Collection Staphylococcus aureus Toxins)
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Abstract

Infection of foot ulcers is a common, often severe and costly complication in diabetes. Diabetic foot infections (DFI) are mainly polymicrobial, and Staphylococcus aureus is the most frequent pathogen isolated. The numerous virulence factors and toxins produced by S. aureus during an infection are well characterized. However, some particular features could be observed in DFI. The aim of this review is to describe the role of S. aureus in DFI and the implication of its toxins in the establishment of the infection. Studies on this issue have helped to distinguish two S. aureus populations in DFI: toxinogenic S. aureus strains (harboring exfoliatin-, EDIN-, PVL- or TSST-encoding genes) and non-toxinogenic strains. Toxinogenic strains are often present in infections with a more severe grade and systemic impact, whereas non-toxinogenic strains seem to remain localized in deep structures and bone involving diabetic foot osteomyelitis. Testing the virulence profile of bacteria seems to be a promising way to predict the behavior of S. aureus in the chronic wounds. View Full-Text
Keywords: diabetic foot infection; Staphylococcus aureus; toxins diabetic foot infection; Staphylococcus aureus; toxins
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Dunyach-Remy, C.; Ngba Essebe, C.; Sotto, A.; Lavigne, J.-P. Staphylococcus aureus Toxins and Diabetic Foot Ulcers: Role in Pathogenesis and Interest in Diagnosis. Toxins 2016, 8, 209.

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