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Toxins 2016, 8(5), 128; doi:10.3390/toxins8050128

A Simple and High-Throughput Analysis of Amatoxins and Phallotoxins in Human Plasma, Serum and Urine Using UPLC-MS/MS Combined with PRiME HLB μElution Platform

1
National Institute of Occupational Health and Poison Control, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100050, China
2
China National Center for Food Safety Risk Assessment, Key Laboratory of Food Safety Risk Assessment, Ministry of Health, Beijing 100021, China
3
The People’s Hospital of Chuxiong Yi Autonomous Prefecture, Chuxiong 675000, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jack Ho Wong
Received: 16 February 2016 / Revised: 16 April 2016 / Accepted: 20 April 2016 / Published: 4 May 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Mycotoxins)
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Abstract

Amatoxins and phallotoxins are toxic cyclopeptides found in the genus Amanita and are among the predominant causes of fatal food poisoning in China. In the treatment of Amanita mushroom poisoning, an early and definite diagnosis is necessary for a successful outcome, which has prompted the development of protocols for the fast and confirmatory determination of amatoxins and phallotoxins in human biological fluids. For this purpose, a simple, rapid and sensitive multiresidue UPLC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous determination of α-amanitin, β-amanitin, γ-amanitin, phalloidin (PHD) and phallacidin (PCD) in human plasma, serum and urine was developed and validated. The diluted plasma, serum and urine samples were directly purified with a novel PRiME technique on a 96-well μElution plate platform, which allowed high-throughput sample processing and low reagent consumption. After purification, a UPLC-MS/MS analysis was performed using positive electrospray ionization (ESI+) in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. This method fulfilled the requirements of a validation test, with good results for the limit of detection (LOD), lower limit of quantification (LLOQ), accuracy, intra- and inter-assay precision, recovery and matrix effects. All of the analytes were confirmed and quantified in authentic plasma, serum and urine samples obtained from cases of poisoning using this method. Using the PRiME μElution technique for quantification reduces labor and time costs and represents a suitable method for routine toxicological and clinical emergency analysis. View Full-Text
Keywords: poisonous mushroom; amatoxin; phallotoxin; PRiME HLB; μElution; LC-MS/MS; biological fluids poisonous mushroom; amatoxin; phallotoxin; PRiME HLB; μElution; LC-MS/MS; biological fluids
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Zhang, S.; Zhao, Y.; Li, H.; Zhou, S.; Chen, D.; Zhang, Y.; Yao, Q.; Sun, C. A Simple and High-Throughput Analysis of Amatoxins and Phallotoxins in Human Plasma, Serum and Urine Using UPLC-MS/MS Combined with PRiME HLB μElution Platform. Toxins 2016, 8, 128.

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