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Toxins 2016, 8(5), 132; doi:10.3390/toxins8050132

Zebrafish Sensitivity to Botulinum Neurotoxins

1
Department of Basic Science, College of Veterinary Medicine, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS 39762, USA
2
Thad Cochran National Warmwater Aquaculture Center, College of Veterinary Medicine, Mississippi State University, Stoneville, MS 38756, USA
Present address: Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Flaminia Pavone
Received: 29 February 2016 / Revised: 12 April 2016 / Accepted: 20 April 2016 / Published: 3 May 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Bacterial Toxins)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [866 KB, uploaded 3 May 2016]   |  

Abstract

Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) are the most potent known toxins. The mouse LD50 assay is the gold standard for testing BoNT potency, but is not sensitive enough to detect the extremely low levels of neurotoxin that may be present in the serum of sensitive animal species that are showing the effects of BoNT toxicity, such as channel catfish affected by visceral toxicosis of catfish. Since zebrafish are an important animal model for diverse biomedical and basic research, they are readily available and have defined genetic lines that facilitate reproducibility. This makes them attractive for use as an alternative bioassay organism. The utility of zebrafish as a bioassay model organism for BoNT was investigated. The 96 h median immobilizing doses of BoNT/A, BoNT/C, BoNT/E, and BoNT/F for adult male Tübingen strain zebrafish (0.32 g mean weight) at 25 °C were 16.31, 124.6, 4.7, and 0.61 picograms (pg)/fish, respectively. These findings support the use of the zebrafish-based bioassays for evaluating the presence of BoNT/A, BoNT/E, and BoNT/F. Evaluating the basis of the relatively high resistance of zebrafish to BoNT/C and the extreme sensitivity to BoNT/F may reveal unique functional patterns to the action of these neurotoxins. View Full-Text
Keywords: botulinum neurotoxins; zebrafish; lethal dose 50 botulinum neurotoxins; zebrafish; lethal dose 50
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Chatla, K.; Gaunt, P.S.; Petrie-Hanson, L.; Ford, L.; Hanson, L.A. Zebrafish Sensitivity to Botulinum Neurotoxins. Toxins 2016, 8, 132.

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